Abstract

We report detection of stimulated emission from the atomic-oxygen 3 3P–3 3S transition at 845 nm after two-photon excitation of the 2 3P–3 3P transition using 226-nm laser radiation. We study this stimulated emission process in flames and in room-temperature flows of O2 and N2O and compare its behavior with that of fluorescence signals acquired simultaneously. Rapid depletion of the laser-excited state by the stimulated emission process may have an impact on the use of diagnostic techniques based on multiphoton excitation in oxygen and in other species. The strength of the stimulated emission signal suggests that it may have applications as a diagnostic technique.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. E. M. Goldsmith, in Process Diagnostics: Materials, Combustion, Fusion, A. K. Hays, A. C. Eckbreth, G. A. Campbell, eds., Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings Vol. 117 (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), pp. 193–201.
  2. L. Allen, G. I. Peters, Phys. Lett. 31A, 95 (1970).
  3. See, e.g., F. A. Korolev, V. V. Martynov, V. I. Odintsov, A. O. Fakhmi, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 40, 600 (1976); J. Eggleston, J. Dallarosa, W. K. Bischel, J. Bokor, C. K. Rhodes, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 3867 (1979); H. Pummer, H. Egger, T. S. Luk, T. Srinivasan, C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 28, 795 (1983); C. Cremer, G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 35, 7 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Aldén, H. Edner, P. Grafström, S. Svanberg, Opt. Commun. 42, 244 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. E. M. Goldsmith, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 1610 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  6. This burner was purchased from McKenna Products (Pittsburg, California 94565).
  7. U. Westblom, S. Agrup, M. Aldén, H. Hertz, J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Properties of laser-induced emission for diagnostic purposes” (to be submitted to Appl. Opt.).
  8. A.W. Miziolek, M. A. DeWilde, Opt. Lett. 9, 390 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. E. M. Goldsmith, Appl. Opt. 26, 3566 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Aldén, H. M. Hertz, S. Svanberg, S. Wallin, Appl. Opt. 23, 3255 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. E. M. Goldsmith, R. J. M. Anderson, Appl. Opt. 24, 607 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Aldén, S. Wallin, W. Wendt, Appl. Phys. B 33, 205 (1984).
    [CrossRef]

1987

1985

1984

1983

J. E. M. Goldsmith, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 1610 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

M. Aldén, H. Edner, P. Grafström, S. Svanberg, Opt. Commun. 42, 244 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1976

See, e.g., F. A. Korolev, V. V. Martynov, V. I. Odintsov, A. O. Fakhmi, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 40, 600 (1976); J. Eggleston, J. Dallarosa, W. K. Bischel, J. Bokor, C. K. Rhodes, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 3867 (1979); H. Pummer, H. Egger, T. S. Luk, T. Srinivasan, C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 28, 795 (1983); C. Cremer, G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 35, 7 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1970

L. Allen, G. I. Peters, Phys. Lett. 31A, 95 (1970).

Agrup, S.

U. Westblom, S. Agrup, M. Aldén, H. Hertz, J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Properties of laser-induced emission for diagnostic purposes” (to be submitted to Appl. Opt.).

Aldén, M.

M. Aldén, H. M. Hertz, S. Svanberg, S. Wallin, Appl. Opt. 23, 3255 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Aldén, S. Wallin, W. Wendt, Appl. Phys. B 33, 205 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, H. Edner, P. Grafström, S. Svanberg, Opt. Commun. 42, 244 (1982).
[CrossRef]

U. Westblom, S. Agrup, M. Aldén, H. Hertz, J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Properties of laser-induced emission for diagnostic purposes” (to be submitted to Appl. Opt.).

Allen, L.

L. Allen, G. I. Peters, Phys. Lett. 31A, 95 (1970).

Anderson, R. J. M.

DeWilde, M. A.

Edner, H.

M. Aldén, H. Edner, P. Grafström, S. Svanberg, Opt. Commun. 42, 244 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Fakhmi, A. O.

See, e.g., F. A. Korolev, V. V. Martynov, V. I. Odintsov, A. O. Fakhmi, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 40, 600 (1976); J. Eggleston, J. Dallarosa, W. K. Bischel, J. Bokor, C. K. Rhodes, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 3867 (1979); H. Pummer, H. Egger, T. S. Luk, T. Srinivasan, C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 28, 795 (1983); C. Cremer, G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 35, 7 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Goldsmith, J. E. M.

J. E. M. Goldsmith, Appl. Opt. 26, 3566 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. M. Goldsmith, R. J. M. Anderson, Appl. Opt. 24, 607 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. M. Goldsmith, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 1610 (1983).
[CrossRef]

U. Westblom, S. Agrup, M. Aldén, H. Hertz, J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Properties of laser-induced emission for diagnostic purposes” (to be submitted to Appl. Opt.).

J. E. M. Goldsmith, in Process Diagnostics: Materials, Combustion, Fusion, A. K. Hays, A. C. Eckbreth, G. A. Campbell, eds., Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings Vol. 117 (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), pp. 193–201.

Grafström, P.

M. Aldén, H. Edner, P. Grafström, S. Svanberg, Opt. Commun. 42, 244 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hertz, H.

U. Westblom, S. Agrup, M. Aldén, H. Hertz, J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Properties of laser-induced emission for diagnostic purposes” (to be submitted to Appl. Opt.).

Hertz, H. M.

Korolev, F. A.

See, e.g., F. A. Korolev, V. V. Martynov, V. I. Odintsov, A. O. Fakhmi, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 40, 600 (1976); J. Eggleston, J. Dallarosa, W. K. Bischel, J. Bokor, C. K. Rhodes, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 3867 (1979); H. Pummer, H. Egger, T. S. Luk, T. Srinivasan, C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 28, 795 (1983); C. Cremer, G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 35, 7 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Martynov, V. V.

See, e.g., F. A. Korolev, V. V. Martynov, V. I. Odintsov, A. O. Fakhmi, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 40, 600 (1976); J. Eggleston, J. Dallarosa, W. K. Bischel, J. Bokor, C. K. Rhodes, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 3867 (1979); H. Pummer, H. Egger, T. S. Luk, T. Srinivasan, C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 28, 795 (1983); C. Cremer, G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 35, 7 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Miziolek, A.W.

Odintsov, V. I.

See, e.g., F. A. Korolev, V. V. Martynov, V. I. Odintsov, A. O. Fakhmi, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 40, 600 (1976); J. Eggleston, J. Dallarosa, W. K. Bischel, J. Bokor, C. K. Rhodes, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 3867 (1979); H. Pummer, H. Egger, T. S. Luk, T. Srinivasan, C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 28, 795 (1983); C. Cremer, G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 35, 7 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Peters, G. I.

L. Allen, G. I. Peters, Phys. Lett. 31A, 95 (1970).

Svanberg, S.

M. Aldén, H. M. Hertz, S. Svanberg, S. Wallin, Appl. Opt. 23, 3255 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Aldén, H. Edner, P. Grafström, S. Svanberg, Opt. Commun. 42, 244 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wallin, S.

Wendt, W.

M. Aldén, S. Wallin, W. Wendt, Appl. Phys. B 33, 205 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Westblom, U.

U. Westblom, S. Agrup, M. Aldén, H. Hertz, J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Properties of laser-induced emission for diagnostic purposes” (to be submitted to Appl. Opt.).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

M. Aldén, S. Wallin, W. Wendt, Appl. Phys. B 33, 205 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

J. E. M. Goldsmith, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 1610 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

M. Aldén, H. Edner, P. Grafström, S. Svanberg, Opt. Commun. 42, 244 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR)

See, e.g., F. A. Korolev, V. V. Martynov, V. I. Odintsov, A. O. Fakhmi, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 40, 600 (1976); J. Eggleston, J. Dallarosa, W. K. Bischel, J. Bokor, C. K. Rhodes, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 3867 (1979); H. Pummer, H. Egger, T. S. Luk, T. Srinivasan, C. K. Rhodes, Phys. Rev. A 28, 795 (1983); C. Cremer, G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 35, 7 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett.

L. Allen, G. I. Peters, Phys. Lett. 31A, 95 (1970).

Other

J. E. M. Goldsmith, in Process Diagnostics: Materials, Combustion, Fusion, A. K. Hays, A. C. Eckbreth, G. A. Campbell, eds., Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings Vol. 117 (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1988), pp. 193–201.

This burner was purchased from McKenna Products (Pittsburg, California 94565).

U. Westblom, S. Agrup, M. Aldén, H. Hertz, J. E. M. Goldsmith, “Properties of laser-induced emission for diagnostic purposes” (to be submitted to Appl. Opt.).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Intensity dependences of FL (open symbols) and SE (filled symbols) signals in a lean (equivalence ratio 0.8), 15-Torr H2/O2 flame (circles), a 380-Torr flow of room-temperature N2O (triangles), and a 380-Torr flow of room-temperature O2 (squares), averaging 100 laser shots/point. Each intensity dependence was recorded with an independent scale factor for the signal, and the (arbitrary) scale factors used to relate the measurements were chosen purely for convenience in the resulting plot (the SE signals were actually much stronger than the FL signals). The inset shows energy levels and transitions relevant to two-photon-excited FL and SE in atomic oxygen (not to scale).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Pressure dependences of FL (open circles) and SE (filled circles) signals recorded in a room-temperature flow of O2, averaging 100 shots/point.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Vertical profiles recorded in a 15-Torr, 0.8 equivalence ratio H2/O2 flame using FL (open squares) and SE (filled circles) detection with the 226-nm laser beam attenuated to 0.4 mJ/pulse and averaging 10 laser shots/point.

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