Abstract

A fiber-optic sensor that is sensitive to the line integral of the electric field is presented. The sensor detects electric-potential differences by adding the scalar products of the local electric fields along the integration path times the path-segment vectors. This is achieved by exploiting symmetry properties of the converse piezoelectric effect. The sensor principle is experimentally demonstrated. Important performance parameters including integration accuracy, dynamic range, linearity, and bandwidth are examined.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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