Abstract

Photorefractive and free-carrier nonlinearities in GaAs transfer energy from a strong picosecond pump, which is linearly polarized at an arbitrary angle to a weak s-polarized probe, into a p-polarized beam propagating in the probe direction. By placing the GaAs between a crossed pair of high-quality polarizers that are set to extinguish the probe in the absence of the pump, an efficient, high-contrast, high-speed optical switch is realized. By varying the pump–probe ratio, delay, fluence, and polarization, we can maximize the intensity of the p-polarized component. This intensity with the pump present divided by that without the pump, the on–off ratio, is approximately 2 at fluences as low as 0.03 mJ/cm2 and approaches 10,000 at fluences of 15 mJ/cm2 and pump polarizations of 45°.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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1988 (5)

J. C. Fabre, J. M. C. Jonathan, G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 65, 257 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Smirl, G. C. Valley, K. M. Bohnert, T. F. Boggess, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 289 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, A. L. Smirl, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 304 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Chang, A. E. Chiou, P. Yeh, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1724 (1988).
[CrossRef]

L.-J. Cheng, P. Yeh, Opt. Lett. 13, 50 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (3)

1986 (2)

G. Pauliat, J. M. C. Jonathan, M. Allain, J. C. Launay, G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 59, 266 (1986); Opt. Commun. 61, 321 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, A. L. Smirl, M. B. Klein, K. Bohnert, T. F. Boggess, Opt. Lett. 11, 647 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

A. G. Apostolidis, S. Mallick, D. Rouede, J. P. Herriau, J. P. Huignard, Opt. Commun. 56, 73 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Herriau, J. P. Huignard, A. G. Apostolidis, S. Mallick, Opt. Commun. 56, 141 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1971 (1)

Allain, M.

G. Pauliat, J. M. C. Jonathan, M. Allain, J. C. Launay, G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 59, 266 (1986); Opt. Commun. 61, 321 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Apostolidis, A. G.

J. P. Herriau, J. P. Huignard, A. G. Apostolidis, S. Mallick, Opt. Commun. 56, 141 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Apostolidis, S. Mallick, D. Rouede, J. P. Herriau, J. P. Huignard, Opt. Commun. 56, 73 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Boggess, T. F.

A. L. Smirl, G. C. Valley, K. M. Bohnert, T. F. Boggess, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 289 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, A. L. Smirl, M. B. Klein, K. Bohnert, T. F. Boggess, Opt. Lett. 11, 647 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, T. F. Boggess, J. Dubard, A. L. Smirl, “Optical cross section ratio for ELZ/ELZ+ in GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

Bohnert, K.

Bohnert, K. M.

A. L. Smirl, G. C. Valley, K. M. Bohnert, T. F. Boggess, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 289 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Burge, R. E.

Chang, T. Y.

Cheng, L.-J.

L.-J. Cheng, P. Yeh, Opt. Lett. 13, 50 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Partovi, E. M. Garmire, L.-J. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 299 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chiou, A. E.

Dubard, J.

G. C. Valley, T. F. Boggess, J. Dubard, A. L. Smirl, “Optical cross section ratio for ELZ/ELZ+ in GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

Fabre, J. C.

J. C. Fabre, J. M. C. Jonathan, G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 65, 257 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Garmire, E. M.

A. Partovi, E. M. Garmire, L.-J. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 299 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hall, T. J.

Herriau, J. P.

A. G. Apostolidis, S. Mallick, D. Rouede, J. P. Herriau, J. P. Huignard, Opt. Commun. 56, 73 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Herriau, J. P. Huignard, A. G. Apostolidis, S. Mallick, Opt. Commun. 56, 141 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

Huignard, J. P.

J. P. Herriau, J. P. Huignard, A. G. Apostolidis, S. Mallick, Opt. Commun. 56, 141 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Apostolidis, S. Mallick, D. Rouede, J. P. Herriau, J. P. Huignard, Opt. Commun. 56, 73 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jonathan, J. M. C.

J. C. Fabre, J. M. C. Jonathan, G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 65, 257 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Pauliat, J. M. C. Jonathan, M. Allain, J. C. Launay, G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 59, 266 (1986); Opt. Commun. 61, 321 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M. B.

Launay, J. C.

G. Pauliat, J. M. C. Jonathan, M. Allain, J. C. Launay, G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 59, 266 (1986); Opt. Commun. 61, 321 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mallick, S.

J. P. Herriau, J. P. Huignard, A. G. Apostolidis, S. Mallick, Opt. Commun. 56, 141 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Apostolidis, S. Mallick, D. Rouede, J. P. Herriau, J. P. Huignard, Opt. Commun. 56, 73 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Partovi, A.

A. Partovi, E. M. Garmire, L.-J. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 299 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pauliat, G.

G. Pauliat, J. M. C. Jonathan, M. Allain, J. C. Launay, G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 59, 266 (1986); Opt. Commun. 61, 321 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Roosen, G.

J. C. Fabre, J. M. C. Jonathan, G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 65, 257 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Pauliat, J. M. C. Jonathan, M. Allain, J. C. Launay, G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 59, 266 (1986); Opt. Commun. 61, 321 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rouede, D.

A. G. Apostolidis, S. Mallick, D. Rouede, J. P. Herriau, J. P. Huignard, Opt. Commun. 56, 73 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Smirl, A. L.

A. L. Smirl, G. C. Valley, K. M. Bohnert, T. F. Boggess, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 289 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, A. L. Smirl, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 304 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, A. L. Smirl, M. B. Klein, K. Bohnert, T. F. Boggess, Opt. Lett. 11, 647 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, T. F. Boggess, J. Dubard, A. L. Smirl, “Optical cross section ratio for ELZ/ELZ+ in GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

Valley, G. C.

A. L. Smirl, G. C. Valley, K. M. Bohnert, T. F. Boggess, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 289 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, A. L. Smirl, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 304 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, A. L. Smirl, M. B. Klein, K. Bohnert, T. F. Boggess, Opt. Lett. 11, 647 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, T. F. Boggess, J. Dubard, A. L. Smirl, “Optical cross section ratio for ELZ/ELZ+ in GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

Walsh, K.

Yeh, P.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Partovi, E. M. Garmire, L.-J. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 299 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

A. L. Smirl, G. C. Valley, K. M. Bohnert, T. F. Boggess, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 289 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, A. L. Smirl, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-24, 304 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (4)

J. C. Fabre, J. M. C. Jonathan, G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 65, 257 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Apostolidis, S. Mallick, D. Rouede, J. P. Herriau, J. P. Huignard, Opt. Commun. 56, 73 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Herriau, J. P. Huignard, A. G. Apostolidis, S. Mallick, Opt. Commun. 56, 141 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. Pauliat, J. M. C. Jonathan, M. Allain, J. C. Launay, G. Roosen, Opt. Commun. 59, 266 (1986); Opt. Commun. 61, 321 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (1)

G. C. Valley, T. F. Boggess, J. Dubard, A. L. Smirl, “Optical cross section ratio for ELZ/ELZ+ in GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. (to be published).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the pump and the probe beam, the crystal, and the analyzer geometry used to make the polarization-rotation switch. P1 and P2, polarizers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

On–off ratio as a function of the pump fluence inside the crystal (0.67 times the pump fluence incident upon the crystal due to Fresnel reflections) for a pump–probe fluence ratio of 25:1, zero delay between the pump and the probe, and both pump and probe s polarized at the entrance face of the crystal. The triangles correspond to an orientation in which the crystal is rotated about the bisector between the pump and the probe by −90°, while the circles correspond to 90°. The theoretical calculation is for an extinction ratio of X = 6 × 10−5.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

On–off ratio as a function of the pump-to-probe fluence ratio for a total fluence incident upon the crystal of 1.5 mJ/cm2, a zero delay, and incident beams with s polarization. The theoretical curves are for extinction ratios of 6 × 10−5 and 7 × 10−5

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

On–off ratio as a function of time delay for an incident fluence of 1.5 mJ/cm2, a pump–probe ratio of 25:1, and incident beams with s polarization. The two theoretical curves are for extinction ratios of 6 × 10−5 and 10−4.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

On–off ratio as a function of the pump polarization angle relative to the s-polarized probe. The two sets of data and theoretical curves are for incident pump fluences of 0.15 and 15 mJ/cm2. All data are for zero delay and a pump–probe ratio of 25:1.

Equations (1)

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on off = ( X F s + F p ) / [ X F s ( 0 ) ] ,

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