Abstract

Micrometer-sized droplets of Rhodamine 6G solution in water and ethanol are irradiated by high-intensity nanosecond pulses from a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. Coupling of the spontaneous fluorescence emission with natural resonant modes of the spherical droplets results in stimulated emission, with each droplet behaving like a laser cavity. Spectral observations suggest that droplet lasing emission is supported by resonances of a single mode order. The emission exhibits faster rise times and is shorter lived than corresponding bulk-liquid fluorescence. Lasing in droplets is generally initiated almost simultaneously with elastic scattering, unlike stimulated Raman scattering, which is significantly delayed.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Arnold, L. M. Folan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2250 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 1, 293 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 9, 499 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H.-B. Lin, A. L. Huston, B. L. Justus, A. J. Campillo, Opt. Lett. 11, 614(1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. B. Snow, S. X. Qian, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 10, 37 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. X. Qian, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 926 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Zhang, D. H. Leach, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 13, 270 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. F. Hsieh, J. Zheng, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 13, 497 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. G. Pinnick, A. Biswas, P. Chylek, R. L. Armstrong, H. Latifi, E. Creegan, V. Srivastava, M. Jarzembski, G. Fernandez, Opt. Lett. 13, 494 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. Chylek, J. Kiehl, M. Ko, Phys. Rev. A 18, 2229 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. B. Berlman, Handbook of Fluorescence Spectra of Aromatic Molecules (Academic, New York, 1965), p. 26.
  14. A. Yariv, Optical Electronics, 3rd ed. (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1986), p. 188.

1988 (3)

1986 (3)

H.-B. Lin, A. L. Huston, B. L. Justus, A. J. Campillo, Opt. Lett. 11, 614(1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Arnold, L. M. Folan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Qian, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 926 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

1982 (1)

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 1, 293 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

P. Chylek, J. Kiehl, M. Ko, Phys. Rev. A 18, 2229 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, R. L.

Arnold, S.

S. Arnold, L. M. Folan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Barber, P. W.

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 1, 293 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Benner, R. E.

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Berlman, I. B.

I. B. Berlman, Handbook of Fluorescence Spectra of Aromatic Molecules (Academic, New York, 1965), p. 26.

Biswas, A.

Campillo, A. J.

Chang, R. K.

W. F. Hsieh, J. Zheng, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 13, 497 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, D. H. Leach, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 13, 270 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. X. Qian, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 926 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Snow, S. X. Qian, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 10, 37 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 9, 499 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 1, 293 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Chylek, P.

Creegan, E.

Dorain, P. B.

J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, G.

Folan, L. M.

S. Arnold, L. M. Folan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, W. F.

Huston, A. L.

Jarzembski, M.

Justus, B. L.

Kiehl, J.

P. Chylek, J. Kiehl, M. Ko, Phys. Rev. A 18, 2229 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ko, M.

P. Chylek, J. Kiehl, M. Ko, Phys. Rev. A 18, 2229 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Latifi, H.

Leach, D. H.

Lin, H.-B.

Long, M. B.

Owen, J. F.

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 1, 293 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Pinnick, R. G.

Qian, S. X.

Snow, J. B.

Srivastava, V.

Tzeng, H. M.

Wall, K. F.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics, 3rd ed. (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1986), p. 188.

Zhang, J.

Zheng, J.

Aerosol Sci. Technol. (1)

J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Aerosol Sci. Technol. 1, 293 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

P. Chylek, J. Kiehl, M. Ko, Phys. Rev. A 18, 2229 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

S. X. Qian, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 926 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Benner, P. W. Barber, J. F. Owen, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 475 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Owen, P. W. Barber, P. B. Dorain, R. K. Chang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1075 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. Arnold, L. M. Folan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

I. B. Berlman, Handbook of Fluorescence Spectra of Aromatic Molecules (Academic, New York, 1965), p. 26.

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics, 3rd ed. (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1986), p. 188.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical lasing spectra for Rhodamine 6G-doped water (a) and ethanol (b) droplets (with radii of 11.3 and 11.8 μm, respectively) irradiated with a 532-nm pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Also shown are the fluorescence emission band and absorption edge for the bulk liquids. Both water and ethanol droplets show a region where no lasing occurs (region A) and a region corresponding to a sequence of quasi-periodic lasing peaks (region B).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Lasing spectra for the Rhodamine 6G-doped water droplets of Fig. 1(a) in the transition region. (b) Mie theory calculation of resonances in the transition region based on the imaginary (absorptive) refractive index shown in Fig. 1(a). (c) The same as in (b) but without droplet absorption. The transverse electric TE n 1 and transverse magnetic TM n 1 resonances of mode number n and mode order 1 are identified. Resonances of mode order 4 are severely suppressed at wavelengths corresponding to the observed transition in (a), suggesting that only these support lasing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Representative temporal signals from different wavelength regions: (a) bulk-liquid fluorescence, (b) off-resonance region in droplets, (c) droplet lasing water (575 nm) and ethanol (586 nm), (d) the same as in (c) except showing multiple time peaks, (e) SRS and lasing simultaneously from an ethanol droplet (630 nm), (f) intermediate region lasing from ethanol (572 nm).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Average Measured Times for an Incident Laser Pulse with Trt = 8.162 ± 0.742 nsec and TFWHM = 8.904 ± 0.750 nseca

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