Abstract

We describe a holographic associative memory that is able to identify individual words and insert word breaks in a concatenated word string. The system is shift invariant and has error-correction capability. Experimental results obtained from the system are presented.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. W. Tank, J. J. Hopfield, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84, 1896 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. W. Tank, J. J. Hopfield, in Proceedings of IEEE First International Conference on Neural Networks (Institute of Electronics and Electrical Engineers, New York, 1987), p. 455.
  3. J. J. Hopfield, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 2554 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. H. Soffer, G. J. Dunning, Y. Owechko, E. Marom, Opt. Lett. 11, 118 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Z. Anderson, Opt. Lett. 11, 56 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Yariv, S. Kwong, K. Kyuma, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 613, 1 (1986).
  7. H. K. Liu, S. Y. Kung, J. A. Davis, Opt. Eng. 25, 853 (1986).
  8. E. G. Paek, D. Psaltis, Opt. Eng. 26, 428 (1987).
  9. A. VanderLugt, IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory IT-10, 139 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. J. Willshaw, O. P. Buneman, H. C. Longuest-Higgins, Nature (London) 222, 960 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. I. Stepanov, V. D. Gural’nik, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 8, 49 (1982).
  12. H. H. Chen, Y. C. Lee, T. Maxwell, G. Z. Sun, H. Y. Lee, C. L. Giles, in AIP Conference Proceedings, J. Denker, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1986), p. 86.
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Psaltis, C. H. Park, in AIP Conference Proceedings, J. Denker, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1986), p. 370.
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Hong, D. Psaltis, Opt. Lett. 11, 811 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

1987

E. G. Paek, D. Psaltis, Opt. Eng. 26, 428 (1987).

D. W. Tank, J. J. Hopfield, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84, 1896 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

J. Hong, D. Psaltis, Opt. Lett. 11, 811 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, S. Kwong, K. Kyuma, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 613, 1 (1986).

H. K. Liu, S. Y. Kung, J. A. Davis, Opt. Eng. 25, 853 (1986).

D. Z. Anderson, Opt. Lett. 11, 56 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Soffer, G. J. Dunning, Y. Owechko, E. Marom, Opt. Lett. 11, 118 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

S. I. Stepanov, V. D. Gural’nik, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 8, 49 (1982).

J. J. Hopfield, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 2554 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1964

A. VanderLugt, IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory IT-10, 139 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1962

D. J. Willshaw, O. P. Buneman, H. C. Longuest-Higgins, Nature (London) 222, 960 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, D. Z.

Buneman, O. P.

D. J. Willshaw, O. P. Buneman, H. C. Longuest-Higgins, Nature (London) 222, 960 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. H.

H. H. Chen, Y. C. Lee, T. Maxwell, G. Z. Sun, H. Y. Lee, C. L. Giles, in AIP Conference Proceedings, J. Denker, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1986), p. 86.
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. A.

H. K. Liu, S. Y. Kung, J. A. Davis, Opt. Eng. 25, 853 (1986).

Dunning, G. J.

Giles, C. L.

H. H. Chen, Y. C. Lee, T. Maxwell, G. Z. Sun, H. Y. Lee, C. L. Giles, in AIP Conference Proceedings, J. Denker, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1986), p. 86.
[CrossRef]

Gural’nik, V. D.

S. I. Stepanov, V. D. Gural’nik, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 8, 49 (1982).

Hong, J.

J. Hong, D. Psaltis, Opt. Lett. 11, 811 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hopfield, J. J.

D. W. Tank, J. J. Hopfield, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84, 1896 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Hopfield, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 2554 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Tank, J. J. Hopfield, in Proceedings of IEEE First International Conference on Neural Networks (Institute of Electronics and Electrical Engineers, New York, 1987), p. 455.

Kung, S. Y.

H. K. Liu, S. Y. Kung, J. A. Davis, Opt. Eng. 25, 853 (1986).

Kwong, S.

A. Yariv, S. Kwong, K. Kyuma, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 613, 1 (1986).

Kyuma, K.

A. Yariv, S. Kwong, K. Kyuma, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 613, 1 (1986).

Lee, H. Y.

H. H. Chen, Y. C. Lee, T. Maxwell, G. Z. Sun, H. Y. Lee, C. L. Giles, in AIP Conference Proceedings, J. Denker, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1986), p. 86.
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. C.

H. H. Chen, Y. C. Lee, T. Maxwell, G. Z. Sun, H. Y. Lee, C. L. Giles, in AIP Conference Proceedings, J. Denker, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1986), p. 86.
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. K.

H. K. Liu, S. Y. Kung, J. A. Davis, Opt. Eng. 25, 853 (1986).

Longuest-Higgins, H. C.

D. J. Willshaw, O. P. Buneman, H. C. Longuest-Higgins, Nature (London) 222, 960 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Marom, E.

Maxwell, T.

H. H. Chen, Y. C. Lee, T. Maxwell, G. Z. Sun, H. Y. Lee, C. L. Giles, in AIP Conference Proceedings, J. Denker, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1986), p. 86.
[CrossRef]

Owechko, Y.

Paek, E. G.

E. G. Paek, D. Psaltis, Opt. Eng. 26, 428 (1987).

Park, C. H.

D. Psaltis, C. H. Park, in AIP Conference Proceedings, J. Denker, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1986), p. 370.
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

E. G. Paek, D. Psaltis, Opt. Eng. 26, 428 (1987).

J. Hong, D. Psaltis, Opt. Lett. 11, 811 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. Psaltis, C. H. Park, in AIP Conference Proceedings, J. Denker, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1986), p. 370.
[CrossRef]

Soffer, B. H.

Stepanov, S. I.

S. I. Stepanov, V. D. Gural’nik, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 8, 49 (1982).

Sun, G. Z.

H. H. Chen, Y. C. Lee, T. Maxwell, G. Z. Sun, H. Y. Lee, C. L. Giles, in AIP Conference Proceedings, J. Denker, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1986), p. 86.
[CrossRef]

Tank, D. W.

D. W. Tank, J. J. Hopfield, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84, 1896 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Tank, J. J. Hopfield, in Proceedings of IEEE First International Conference on Neural Networks (Institute of Electronics and Electrical Engineers, New York, 1987), p. 455.

VanderLugt, A.

A. VanderLugt, IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory IT-10, 139 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Willshaw, D. J.

D. J. Willshaw, O. P. Buneman, H. C. Longuest-Higgins, Nature (London) 222, 960 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, S. Kwong, K. Kyuma, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 613, 1 (1986).

IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory

A. VanderLugt, IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory IT-10, 139 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

D. J. Willshaw, O. P. Buneman, H. C. Longuest-Higgins, Nature (London) 222, 960 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

H. K. Liu, S. Y. Kung, J. A. Davis, Opt. Eng. 25, 853 (1986).

E. G. Paek, D. Psaltis, Opt. Eng. 26, 428 (1987).

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

J. J. Hopfield, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 2554 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Tank, J. J. Hopfield, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84, 1896 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

A. Yariv, S. Kwong, K. Kyuma, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 613, 1 (1986).

Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett.

S. I. Stepanov, V. D. Gural’nik, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 8, 49 (1982).

Other

H. H. Chen, Y. C. Lee, T. Maxwell, G. Z. Sun, H. Y. Lee, C. L. Giles, in AIP Conference Proceedings, J. Denker, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1986), p. 86.
[CrossRef]

D. Psaltis, C. H. Park, in AIP Conference Proceedings, J. Denker, ed. (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1986), p. 370.
[CrossRef]

D. W. Tank, J. J. Hopfield, in Proceedings of IEEE First International Conference on Neural Networks (Institute of Electronics and Electrical Engineers, New York, 1987), p. 455.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the holographic word-break recognition system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Positioning relationship.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The four patterns stored in the holographic memory. (b) The input to be read. (c) The correlation output. (d) The thresholded version of the correlation output that is anamorphically magnified along the x (word) direction. (e) The associative recalled output with spaces between the words and the error corrections.

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