Abstract

A parallel analog-to-digital converter with neuronlike elements is designed and optically implemented. Its operation principle is the simultaneous estimation of bit values for a given analog input. Architecture of the proposed analog-to-digital converter is simpler than that of an earlier one designed by the energy-minimization technique, and its digital output is independent of the initial state.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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1988 (3)

1987 (5)

1986 (3)

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

R. A. Becker, C. E. Woodward, F. J. Leonberger, R. C. Williamson, Proc. IEEE 72, 802 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Anderson, D. Z.

Becker, R. A.

R. A. Becker, C. E. Woodward, F. J. Leonberger, R. C. Williamson, Proc. IEEE 72, 802 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Belove, C.

D. L. Schilling, C. Belove, Electronic Circuits: Discrete and Integrated (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1979), Chap. 15.

Brady, D.

Dias, A. R.

Dunning, G. J.

Farhat, N.

Farhat, N. H.

Fisher, A. D.

Games, R. A.

R. A. Games, E. L. Key, D. Moulin, presented at the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems—Natural and Synthetic, Denver, Colorado, 1987.

Gasper, M. E.

M. E. Gasper, presented at the Institute of Electrical and Electronics EngineersConference on Neural Information Processing Systems—Natural and Synthetic, Denver, Colorado, 1987.

Goodman, J.

Guest, C. C.

Hopfield, J. J.

D. W. Tank, J. J. Hopfield, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. CAS-33, 533 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.-S.

Jung, S.-W.

Key, E. L.

R. A. Games, E. L. Key, D. Moulin, presented at the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems—Natural and Synthetic, Denver, Colorado, 1987.

Kwong, S.-K.

Lee, J. C.

Lee, S.-Y.

Leonberger, F. J.

R. A. Becker, C. E. Woodward, F. J. Leonberger, R. C. Williamson, Proc. IEEE 72, 802 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lippincott, W. L.

Marom, E.

McClelland, J. L.

D. E. Rumelhart, J. L. McClelland, Parallel Distributed Processing (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1986), Vol. 1.

Moulin, D.

R. A. Games, E. L. Key, D. Moulin, presented at the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems—Natural and Synthetic, Denver, Colorado, 1987.

Owechko, Y.

Paek, E.

Pineda, F. J.

F. J. Pineda, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2229 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prata, A.

Psaltis, D.

Rumelhart, D. E.

D. E. Rumelhart, J. L. McClelland, Parallel Distributed Processing (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1986), Vol. 1.

Schilling, D. L.

D. L. Schilling, C. Belove, Electronic Circuits: Discrete and Integrated (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1979), Chap. 15.

Shin, S.-Y.

Soffer, B. H.

Tank, D. W.

D. W. Tank, J. J. Hopfield, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. CAS-33, 533 (1986).
[CrossRef]

TeKolste, R.

Wagner, K.

Williamson, R. C.

R. A. Becker, C. E. Woodward, F. J. Leonberger, R. C. Williamson, Proc. IEEE 72, 802 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, C. E.

R. A. Becker, C. E. Woodward, F. J. Leonberger, R. C. Williamson, Proc. IEEE 72, 802 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Woody, I. M.

Yariv, A.

Appl. Opt. (5)

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. (1)

D. W. Tank, J. J. Hopfield, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. CAS-33, 533 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

F. J. Pineda, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2229 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. A. Becker, C. E. Woodward, F. J. Leonberger, R. C. Williamson, Proc. IEEE 72, 802 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

D. E. Rumelhart, J. L. McClelland, Parallel Distributed Processing (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1986), Vol. 1.

M. E. Gasper, presented at the Institute of Electrical and Electronics EngineersConference on Neural Information Processing Systems—Natural and Synthetic, Denver, Colorado, 1987.

R. A. Games, E. L. Key, D. Moulin, presented at the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems—Natural and Synthetic, Denver, Colorado, 1987.

D. L. Schilling, C. Belove, Electronic Circuits: Discrete and Integrated (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1979), Chap. 15.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Successive approximation algorithm for 3-bit analog-to-digital conversion. (b) Discrete operation network for a parallel version of the successive-approximation method. The circles are threshold units whose output values are 1 or 0, and the numbers on the connecting lines are the weights of the units.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Electronic model circuit of the continuous-operation network. rij = 1/|Tij|, rbi = 1/(2i − 0.5), rx = 1, and thus 1/Ri = 1/ri + 1/rbi + 1/rx + Σj (1/rij), where ri is the amplifier input resistance. (b) Experimental result of the implemented 4-bit ADC when the analog input is a ramp function that increases linearly from 0 to 10 V in a horizontal time axis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Optical implementation scheme with a vector-matrix multiplier that uses a double-row mask for negative connections. The numbers are normalized values of resistors and voltage, (b) Experimental result of the optically implemented 4-bit ADC when the analog input is a ramp function. The applied voltage is converted to light intensity by the input LED x.

Equations (7)

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V ˆ i = j = 0 N 1 T ij V j + x ( 2 i 0 . 5 )
V i = θ ( V ˆ i ) ,
T ij = { 2 j if j > i 0 otherwise ,
C i d u i d t = u i R i + j = 0 N 1 T ij V j + x ( 2 i 0 . 5 )
V i = θ ( u i ) ,
[ V ˆ 0 V ˆ 1 V ˆ 2 V ˆ 3 ] = [ 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 ] [ 2 V 1 4 V 2 8 V 3 x ] [ 0 . 5 1 . 5 3 . 5 7 . 5 ]
T [ 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 ] .

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