Abstract

We have fabricated and experimentally tested low-cost and mass-producible multimode fiber-optic couplers and connectors based on nonimaging beam-expanding optics and Liouville’s theorem. Analysis indicates that a pair coupling loss of −0.25 dB can be achieved. Experimentally, we measured insertion losses as low as −0.38 dB. The beam expanders can be mass produced owing to the use of plastic injection-molding fabrication techniques and packaged in standard connector housings. This design is compatible with the fiber geometry and can yield highly stable coupling owing to its high tolerance for misalignments.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Marcuse, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 45, 743 (1966).
  2. M. C. Hudson, Appl. Opt. 13, 1029 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. M. Knecht, W. J. Carlsen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 326, 44 (1983).
  4. A. Nicia, Electron. Lett. 14, 511 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. A. Bedgood, J. Leach, M. Matthews, Electron. Commun. 51, 85 (1976).
  6. D. Marcuse, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 125 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Amitay, H. M. Presby, F. V. Di Marcello, K. T. Nelson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 70 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Martinez, G. Wylangowski, C. D. Hussey, F. P. Payne, Electron. Lett. 24, 14 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. T. Welford, R. Winston, The Optics of Non-Imaging Concentrators (Academic, New York, 1978).
  10. X. Ning, R. Winson, J. O’Gallogher, Appl. Opt. 26, 300 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Ng, I. Kasimoff, B. Moslehi, T. Jannson, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper MR4.

1988 (1)

F. Martinez, G. Wylangowski, C. D. Hussey, F. P. Payne, Electron. Lett. 24, 14 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (3)

X. Ning, R. Winson, J. O’Gallogher, Appl. Opt. 26, 300 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Marcuse, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 125 (1987).
[CrossRef]

N. Amitay, H. M. Presby, F. V. Di Marcello, K. T. Nelson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 70 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

D. M. Knecht, W. J. Carlsen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 326, 44 (1983).

1978 (1)

A. Nicia, Electron. Lett. 14, 511 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

M. A. Bedgood, J. Leach, M. Matthews, Electron. Commun. 51, 85 (1976).

1974 (1)

1966 (1)

D. Marcuse, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 45, 743 (1966).

Amitay, N.

N. Amitay, H. M. Presby, F. V. Di Marcello, K. T. Nelson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 70 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bedgood, M. A.

M. A. Bedgood, J. Leach, M. Matthews, Electron. Commun. 51, 85 (1976).

Carlsen, W. J.

D. M. Knecht, W. J. Carlsen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 326, 44 (1983).

Di Marcello, F. V.

N. Amitay, H. M. Presby, F. V. Di Marcello, K. T. Nelson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 70 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, M. C.

Hussey, C. D.

F. Martinez, G. Wylangowski, C. D. Hussey, F. P. Payne, Electron. Lett. 24, 14 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jannson, T.

J. Ng, I. Kasimoff, B. Moslehi, T. Jannson, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper MR4.

Kasimoff, I.

J. Ng, I. Kasimoff, B. Moslehi, T. Jannson, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper MR4.

Knecht, D. M.

D. M. Knecht, W. J. Carlsen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 326, 44 (1983).

Leach, J.

M. A. Bedgood, J. Leach, M. Matthews, Electron. Commun. 51, 85 (1976).

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 125 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Marcuse, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 45, 743 (1966).

Martinez, F.

F. Martinez, G. Wylangowski, C. D. Hussey, F. P. Payne, Electron. Lett. 24, 14 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, M.

M. A. Bedgood, J. Leach, M. Matthews, Electron. Commun. 51, 85 (1976).

Moslehi, B.

J. Ng, I. Kasimoff, B. Moslehi, T. Jannson, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper MR4.

Nelson, K. T.

N. Amitay, H. M. Presby, F. V. Di Marcello, K. T. Nelson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 70 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ng, J.

J. Ng, I. Kasimoff, B. Moslehi, T. Jannson, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper MR4.

Nicia, A.

A. Nicia, Electron. Lett. 14, 511 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ning, X.

O’Gallogher, J.

Payne, F. P.

F. Martinez, G. Wylangowski, C. D. Hussey, F. P. Payne, Electron. Lett. 24, 14 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Presby, H. M.

N. Amitay, H. M. Presby, F. V. Di Marcello, K. T. Nelson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 70 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Welford, W. T.

W. T. Welford, R. Winston, The Optics of Non-Imaging Concentrators (Academic, New York, 1978).

Winson, R.

Winston, R.

W. T. Welford, R. Winston, The Optics of Non-Imaging Concentrators (Academic, New York, 1978).

Wylangowski, G.

F. Martinez, G. Wylangowski, C. D. Hussey, F. P. Payne, Electron. Lett. 24, 14 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

D. Marcuse, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 45, 743 (1966).

Electron. Commun. (1)

M. A. Bedgood, J. Leach, M. Matthews, Electron. Commun. 51, 85 (1976).

Electron. Lett. (2)

F. Martinez, G. Wylangowski, C. D. Hussey, F. P. Payne, Electron. Lett. 24, 14 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Nicia, Electron. Lett. 14, 511 (1978).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

D. Marcuse, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 125 (1987).
[CrossRef]

N. Amitay, H. M. Presby, F. V. Di Marcello, K. T. Nelson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 70 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

D. M. Knecht, W. J. Carlsen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 326, 44 (1983).

Other (2)

W. T. Welford, R. Winston, The Optics of Non-Imaging Concentrators (Academic, New York, 1978).

J. Ng, I. Kasimoff, B. Moslehi, T. Jannson, in Digest of Optical Society of America Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper MR4.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Phase-space diagram of a limited Lambertian source. Each spatial point P(x, y) at source emits a cone of radiation, where kx and ky are directional cosines of the diverging rays and ρ is the density of rays.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ideal concentration/collimation system, where a beam of area A with a beam divergence angle θ1 is transformed into a beam of area a with a divergence angle θ2 while preserving the Liouville invariant.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Hyperbolic-profiled NIO concentrator. It concentrates a beam of diameter D1 with a divergence angle θ1 into a beam of diameter D2 with a divergence angle θ2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pair of hyperbolic Liouville NIO (LNIO) fiber-optic couplers. In actual operation the optical fibers are pigtailed to the LNIO tips.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Photograph of injection-molded 400-μm-tip NIO’s. The expanded-beam diameter is 2 mm. A flange was incorporated in the design to facilitate the mounting.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental plots of lateral-offset sensitivity for NIO–NIO and direct fiber–fiber couplings using 400-μm-core fibers and 400-μm/2-mm NIO devices. The lateral offset is normalized by the fiber core diameter in the horizontal axis.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Photograph of pigtailed 400-μm NIO devices in a Biconic housing.

Equations (9)

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P = E ( x , y ) d x d y = k 2 B ( x , y ; k x , k y ) d x d y d k x d k y ,
ρ ( x , y ; k x , k y ) = const . B ( x , y ; k x , k y ) .
d ρ / d z = 0 .
ρ ( x , y ; k x , k y ; z i ) = { const . for r V i 0 otherwise ,
d V / d z = 0 .
V = ( 0 . 5 k D sin θ ) 2 ,
D i sin θ i = D o sin θ o .
C 2 D = D i / D o = sin θ o / sin θ i ,
C 3 D = D i 2 / D o 2 = sin 2 θ o / sin 2 θ i .

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