Abstract

An efficient erbium-doped fiber amplifier providing gains from +25 to +37 dB with pump powers at λ = 1.49 μm in the 11–54-mW range is described. Corresponding saturation output powers of +2.5 to +11 dBm were achieved. A maximum gain coefficient of 2.1 ± 0.1 dB/mW was measured, which is to our knowledge the highest value reported for erbium-doped fiber amplifiers pumped near λ = 1.49 μm and matches previously reported results for a λ = 980-nm pump.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 1026 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  2. E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, Opt. Lett. 12, 888 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. R. Talman, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 651 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  4. E. Snitzer, H. Po, F. Hakimi, R. Tumminelli, B. C. MacCollum, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper PD2.
  5. T. J. Whitley, T. G. Hodgkinson, presented at European Conference on Optical Communications, Brighton, UK, 1988.
  6. T. J. Whitley, Electron. Lett. 24, 1537 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, K. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 295 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  8. K. Hagimoto, K. Iwatsuki, A. Takada, M. Nakazawa, M. Saruwatari, K. Aida, K. Nakagawa, M. Horiguchi, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD15.
  9. R. I. Laming, M. C. Fames, P. R. Morkel, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, P. L. Scrivener, F. Fontana, A. Righetti, Electron. Lett. 25, 12 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  10. E. Desurvire, R. C. Giles, J. R. Simpson, “Gain saturation effects in high-speed, multichannel erbium-doped fiber amplifiers at λ = 1.53 μm,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).
  11. E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 835 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. Saitoh, T. Mukai, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1656 (1988).
    [Crossref]

1989 (4)

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. R. Talman, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 651 (1989).
[Crossref]

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, K. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 295 (1989).
[Crossref]

R. I. Laming, M. C. Fames, P. R. Morkel, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, P. L. Scrivener, F. Fontana, A. Righetti, Electron. Lett. 25, 12 (1989).
[Crossref]

E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 835 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (2)

T. Saitoh, T. Mukai, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1656 (1988).
[Crossref]

T. J. Whitley, Electron. Lett. 24, 1537 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (2)

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 1026 (1987).
[Crossref]

E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, Opt. Lett. 12, 888 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aida, K.

K. Hagimoto, K. Iwatsuki, A. Takada, M. Nakazawa, M. Saruwatari, K. Aida, K. Nakagawa, M. Horiguchi, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD15.

Becker, P. C.

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. R. Talman, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 651 (1989).
[Crossref]

E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, Opt. Lett. 12, 888 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Desurvire, E.

E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 835 (1989).
[Crossref]

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. R. Talman, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 651 (1989).
[Crossref]

E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, Opt. Lett. 12, 888 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Desurvire, R. C. Giles, J. R. Simpson, “Gain saturation effects in high-speed, multichannel erbium-doped fiber amplifiers at λ = 1.53 μm,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Fames, M. C.

R. I. Laming, M. C. Fames, P. R. Morkel, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, P. L. Scrivener, F. Fontana, A. Righetti, Electron. Lett. 25, 12 (1989).
[Crossref]

Fontana, F.

R. I. Laming, M. C. Fames, P. R. Morkel, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, P. L. Scrivener, F. Fontana, A. Righetti, Electron. Lett. 25, 12 (1989).
[Crossref]

Giles, C. R.

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. R. Talman, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 651 (1989).
[Crossref]

Giles, R. C.

E. Desurvire, R. C. Giles, J. R. Simpson, “Gain saturation effects in high-speed, multichannel erbium-doped fiber amplifiers at λ = 1.53 μm,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Hagimoto, K.

K. Hagimoto, K. Iwatsuki, A. Takada, M. Nakazawa, M. Saruwatari, K. Aida, K. Nakagawa, M. Horiguchi, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD15.

Hakimi, F.

E. Snitzer, H. Po, F. Hakimi, R. Tumminelli, B. C. MacCollum, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper PD2.

Hodgkinson, T. G.

T. J. Whitley, T. G. Hodgkinson, presented at European Conference on Optical Communications, Brighton, UK, 1988.

Horiguchi, M.

K. Hagimoto, K. Iwatsuki, A. Takada, M. Nakazawa, M. Saruwatari, K. Aida, K. Nakagawa, M. Horiguchi, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD15.

Iwatsuki, K.

K. Hagimoto, K. Iwatsuki, A. Takada, M. Nakazawa, M. Saruwatari, K. Aida, K. Nakagawa, M. Horiguchi, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD15.

Jauncey, I. M.

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 1026 (1987).
[Crossref]

Kimura, Y.

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, K. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 295 (1989).
[Crossref]

Laming, R. I.

R. I. Laming, M. C. Fames, P. R. Morkel, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, P. L. Scrivener, F. Fontana, A. Righetti, Electron. Lett. 25, 12 (1989).
[Crossref]

MacCollum, B. C.

E. Snitzer, H. Po, F. Hakimi, R. Tumminelli, B. C. MacCollum, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper PD2.

Mears, R. J.

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 1026 (1987).
[Crossref]

Morkel, P. R.

R. I. Laming, M. C. Fames, P. R. Morkel, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, P. L. Scrivener, F. Fontana, A. Righetti, Electron. Lett. 25, 12 (1989).
[Crossref]

Mukai, T.

T. Saitoh, T. Mukai, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1656 (1988).
[Crossref]

Nakagawa, K.

K. Hagimoto, K. Iwatsuki, A. Takada, M. Nakazawa, M. Saruwatari, K. Aida, K. Nakagawa, M. Horiguchi, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD15.

Nakazawa, M.

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, K. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 295 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. Hagimoto, K. Iwatsuki, A. Takada, M. Nakazawa, M. Saruwatari, K. Aida, K. Nakagawa, M. Horiguchi, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD15.

Payne, D. N.

R. I. Laming, M. C. Fames, P. R. Morkel, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, P. L. Scrivener, F. Fontana, A. Righetti, Electron. Lett. 25, 12 (1989).
[Crossref]

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 1026 (1987).
[Crossref]

Po, H.

E. Snitzer, H. Po, F. Hakimi, R. Tumminelli, B. C. MacCollum, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper PD2.

Reekie, L.

R. I. Laming, M. C. Fames, P. R. Morkel, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, P. L. Scrivener, F. Fontana, A. Righetti, Electron. Lett. 25, 12 (1989).
[Crossref]

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 1026 (1987).
[Crossref]

Righetti, A.

R. I. Laming, M. C. Fames, P. R. Morkel, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, P. L. Scrivener, F. Fontana, A. Righetti, Electron. Lett. 25, 12 (1989).
[Crossref]

Saitoh, T.

T. Saitoh, T. Mukai, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1656 (1988).
[Crossref]

Saruwatari, M.

K. Hagimoto, K. Iwatsuki, A. Takada, M. Nakazawa, M. Saruwatari, K. Aida, K. Nakagawa, M. Horiguchi, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD15.

Scrivener, P. L.

R. I. Laming, M. C. Fames, P. R. Morkel, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, P. L. Scrivener, F. Fontana, A. Righetti, Electron. Lett. 25, 12 (1989).
[Crossref]

Simpson, J. R.

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. R. Talman, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 651 (1989).
[Crossref]

E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 835 (1989).
[Crossref]

E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, Opt. Lett. 12, 888 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Desurvire, R. C. Giles, J. R. Simpson, “Gain saturation effects in high-speed, multichannel erbium-doped fiber amplifiers at λ = 1.53 μm,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Snitzer, E.

E. Snitzer, H. Po, F. Hakimi, R. Tumminelli, B. C. MacCollum, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper PD2.

Suzuki, K.

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, K. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 295 (1989).
[Crossref]

Takada, A.

K. Hagimoto, K. Iwatsuki, A. Takada, M. Nakazawa, M. Saruwatari, K. Aida, K. Nakagawa, M. Horiguchi, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD15.

Talman, J. R.

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. R. Talman, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 651 (1989).
[Crossref]

Tumminelli, R.

E. Snitzer, H. Po, F. Hakimi, R. Tumminelli, B. C. MacCollum, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper PD2.

Whitley, T. J.

T. J. Whitley, Electron. Lett. 24, 1537 (1988).
[Crossref]

T. J. Whitley, T. G. Hodgkinson, presented at European Conference on Optical Communications, Brighton, UK, 1988.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Nakazawa, Y. Kimura, K. Suzuki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 295 (1989).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (3)

R. I. Laming, M. C. Fames, P. R. Morkel, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, P. L. Scrivener, F. Fontana, A. Righetti, Electron. Lett. 25, 12 (1989).
[Crossref]

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 1026 (1987).
[Crossref]

T. J. Whitley, Electron. Lett. 24, 1537 (1988).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 835 (1989).
[Crossref]

T. Saitoh, T. Mukai, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1656 (1988).
[Crossref]

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. R. Talman, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 651 (1989).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

E. Snitzer, H. Po, F. Hakimi, R. Tumminelli, B. C. MacCollum, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper PD2.

T. J. Whitley, T. G. Hodgkinson, presented at European Conference on Optical Communications, Brighton, UK, 1988.

E. Desurvire, R. C. Giles, J. R. Simpson, “Gain saturation effects in high-speed, multichannel erbium-doped fiber amplifiers at λ = 1.53 μm,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

K. Hagimoto, K. Iwatsuki, A. Takada, M. Nakazawa, M. Saruwatari, K. Aida, K. Nakagawa, M. Horiguchi, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD15.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. 10°, Fiber end polished at a 10° angle; BS, butt splice; IF, interference filter; AT, attenuator; IM, index matching.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Signal gain at λs = 1.531 μm as a function of the launched pump power at λp = 1.493 μm obtained for a length L = 47 5 m of Er-doped fiber. The inset shows the output spectrum of the fiber amplifier, with the pump, the signal, and the amplified spontaneous emission noise background with a gain condition of +30.5 dB. (Horizontal scale, 10 nm/division; vertical scale, 5 dB/division; resolution, 0.1 nm).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Signal gain versus the input signal power for four different pump powers. The corresponding optimal length Lopt, the unsaturated gain Gmax, and the saturation input power Psatin for 3-dB gain compression are also given, (b) Signal gain versus the output signal power for the different pump powers and optimal lengths corresponding to (a). Also shown are the unsaturated gains Gmax and the saturation output powers Psatout.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Input and output saturation powers as a function of the pump power launched into the fiber amplifier.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

g ( λ ) = 2 π σ e ( λ ) ρ ( r ) ψ ( r ) [ N 2 ( r ) σ a ( λ ) σ e ( λ ) N 1 ( r ) ] r d r ,
g ( P p , λ ) = ρ o σ e ( λ ) { 1 η + P * P p [ 1 + σ a ( λ ) σ e ( λ ) ] × ln [ P * + η P p P * + P p ] } ,
P p th = P * σ e + σ a σ e ( 1 η ) ln ( P * + P p th P * + η P p th ) .

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