Abstract

Degenerate four-wave mixing measurements were made on several Nd3+-doped laser materials by resonantly pumping the Nd3+ ions. The dominant contribution to the signal under these conditions is associated with the difference in polarizabilities of the Nd3+ ions in the metastable state versus the ground state. Absolute measurements of the signal strengths imply a laser-induced polarizability change of the order of 0.01–0.05 Å3. The results indicate that, for the case of a single-shot laser amplifier system, the beam distortion induced by this population-induced change in the refractive index is comparable with the distortion arising from thermal effects.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. Koechner, Solid State Engineering (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1988).
  2. G. D. Baldwin, E. P. Riedel, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2726 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. P. Riedel, G. D. Baldwin, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2720 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. D. S. Hamilton, D. Heiman, J. Feinberg, R. W. Hellwarth, Opt. Lett. 4, 124 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. F. Krupke, M. D. Shinn, J. E. Marion, J. A. Caird, S. E. Stokowski, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 102 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. J. Weber, Handbook of Laser Science and Technology (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1982) Vol. I, pp. 67–71.
  8. The dn/dT value for YLF was provided by Sanders Associates.
  9. H. J. Eichler, J. Eichler, J. Knof, Ch. Noack, Phys. Status Solidi A 52, 481 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Eichler, G. Salje, H. Stahl, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5383 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Seitz, The Modern Theory of Solids (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1940).
  12. B. R. Judd, Phys. Rev. 127, 750 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. P. Chernov, L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, A. A. Kaminskii, V. V. Mikhailin, S. N. Rudnev, T. V. Uvarova, Phys. Status Solidi A 88, K169 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. S. Rooze, N. A. Anisimov, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 38, 356 (1975).
  15. A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1975).
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    [CrossRef]
  17. M. J. Weber, D. Milam, W. L. Smith, Opt. Eng. 17, 463 (1978).

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

S. P. Chernov, L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, A. A. Kaminskii, V. V. Mikhailin, S. N. Rudnev, T. V. Uvarova, Phys. Status Solidi A 88, K169 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

H. J. Eichler, J. Eichler, J. Knof, Ch. Noack, Phys. Status Solidi A 52, 481 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Hamilton, D. Heiman, J. Feinberg, R. W. Hellwarth, Opt. Lett. 4, 124 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (2)

M. M. Bubnov, A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 275 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, D. Milam, W. L. Smith, Opt. Eng. 17, 463 (1978).

1975 (1)

N. S. Rooze, N. A. Anisimov, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 38, 356 (1975).

1973 (1)

H. Eichler, G. Salje, H. Stahl, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5383 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1967 (2)

G. D. Baldwin, E. P. Riedel, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2726 (1967).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Riedel, G. D. Baldwin, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2720 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

B. R. Judd, Phys. Rev. 127, 750 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Adair, R.

Anisimov, N. A.

N. S. Rooze, N. A. Anisimov, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 38, 356 (1975).

Baldwin, G. D.

G. D. Baldwin, E. P. Riedel, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2726 (1967).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Riedel, G. D. Baldwin, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2720 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Bubnov, M. M.

M. M. Bubnov, A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 275 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Caird, J. A.

Chase, L. L.

Chernov, S. P.

S. P. Chernov, L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, A. A. Kaminskii, V. V. Mikhailin, S. N. Rudnev, T. V. Uvarova, Phys. Status Solidi A 88, K169 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Devyatkova, L. I.

S. P. Chernov, L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, A. A. Kaminskii, V. V. Mikhailin, S. N. Rudnev, T. V. Uvarova, Phys. Status Solidi A 88, K169 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

M. M. Bubnov, A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 275 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, H.

H. Eichler, G. Salje, H. Stahl, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5383 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, H. J.

H. J. Eichler, J. Eichler, J. Knof, Ch. Noack, Phys. Status Solidi A 52, 481 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, J.

H. J. Eichler, J. Eichler, J. Knof, Ch. Noack, Phys. Status Solidi A 52, 481 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

Grudinin, A. B.

M. M. Bubnov, A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 275 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, D. S.

Heiman, D.

Hellwarth, R. W.

Ivanova, O. N.

S. P. Chernov, L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, A. A. Kaminskii, V. V. Mikhailin, S. N. Rudnev, T. V. Uvarova, Phys. Status Solidi A 88, K169 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, Phys. Rev. 127, 750 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A. A.

S. P. Chernov, L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, A. A. Kaminskii, V. V. Mikhailin, S. N. Rudnev, T. V. Uvarova, Phys. Status Solidi A 88, K169 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Knof, J.

H. J. Eichler, J. Eichler, J. Knof, Ch. Noack, Phys. Status Solidi A 52, 481 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid State Engineering (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1988).

Krupke, W. F.

Marion, J. E.

Mikhailin, V. V.

S. P. Chernov, L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, A. A. Kaminskii, V. V. Mikhailin, S. N. Rudnev, T. V. Uvarova, Phys. Status Solidi A 88, K169 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Milam, D.

M. J. Weber, D. Milam, W. L. Smith, Opt. Eng. 17, 463 (1978).

Noack, Ch.

H. J. Eichler, J. Eichler, J. Knof, Ch. Noack, Phys. Status Solidi A 52, 481 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

Prokhorov, A. M.

M. M. Bubnov, A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 275 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Riedel, E. P.

G. D. Baldwin, E. P. Riedel, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2726 (1967).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Riedel, G. D. Baldwin, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2720 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Rooze, N. S.

N. S. Rooze, N. A. Anisimov, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 38, 356 (1975).

Rudnev, S. N.

S. P. Chernov, L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, A. A. Kaminskii, V. V. Mikhailin, S. N. Rudnev, T. V. Uvarova, Phys. Status Solidi A 88, K169 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Salje, G.

H. Eichler, G. Salje, H. Stahl, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5383 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Seitz, F.

F. Seitz, The Modern Theory of Solids (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1940).

Shinn, M. D.

Smith, W. L.

M. J. Weber, D. Milam, W. L. Smith, Opt. Eng. 17, 463 (1978).

Stahl, H.

H. Eichler, G. Salje, H. Stahl, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5383 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Stokowski, S. E.

Uvarova, T. V.

S. P. Chernov, L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, A. A. Kaminskii, V. V. Mikhailin, S. N. Rudnev, T. V. Uvarova, Phys. Status Solidi A 88, K169 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, D. Milam, W. L. Smith, Opt. Eng. 17, 463 (1978).

M. J. Weber, Handbook of Laser Science and Technology (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1982) Vol. I, pp. 67–71.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1975).

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

G. D. Baldwin, E. P. Riedel, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2726 (1967).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Riedel, G. D. Baldwin, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2720 (1967).
[CrossRef]

H. Eichler, G. Salje, H. Stahl, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5383 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. J. Weber, D. Milam, W. L. Smith, Opt. Eng. 17, 463 (1978).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) (1)

N. S. Rooze, N. A. Anisimov, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 38, 356 (1975).

Phys. Rev. (1)

B. R. Judd, Phys. Rev. 127, 750 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (2)

S. P. Chernov, L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, A. A. Kaminskii, V. V. Mikhailin, S. N. Rudnev, T. V. Uvarova, Phys. Status Solidi A 88, K169 (1985).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Eichler, J. Eichler, J. Knof, Ch. Noack, Phys. Status Solidi A 52, 481 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. M. Bubnov, A. B. Grudinin, E. M. Dianov, A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 8, 275 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

W. Koechner, Solid State Engineering (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1988).

M. J. Weber, Handbook of Laser Science and Technology (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1982) Vol. I, pp. 67–71.

The dn/dT value for YLF was provided by Sanders Associates.

F. Seitz, The Modern Theory of Solids (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1940).

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1975).

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Tables (1)

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Table 1 Relevant Optical Properties and Experimental Results for Nd-Doped Materials

Equations (9)

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η = ( π d Δ n λ ) 2 + ( d Δ α 4 ) 2 ,
P sig = 4 T 4 3 π 2 w 0 4 S x 2 P f P b P p exp ( a d ) [ 1 exp ( a d ) ] 2 ,
S phase = 4 π 2 f L 2 τ Δ α P c n h
S abs = Δ σ τ 2 h ν
Δ α p = ( f e 2 / m ) { 1 / [ ( ω 0 Δ ) 2 ω 2 ] 1 / ( ω 0 2 ω 2 ) } ,
Δ n pop = ( 2 π f L 2 N ex / n ) Δ α p .
Δ n th = ( d n / d T ) Δ T .
Δ T = N ex ћ ω ave Φ / C p ρ ,
Δ n h = γ I ext .

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