Abstract

Diffracted surface second-harmonic radiation emerging in several orders has been observed from a periodically modulated monolayer of adsorbed dye molecules. The molecular grating was produced by laser-induced desorption in the field of two crossed beams. An elementary theory is presented that relates the characteristics of the second-harmonic diffraction pattern to the spatially varying properties of the surface and is applied to infer the adsorbate density profile of the spatially modulated grating. The density profile is compared with the predictions of a model of grating formation based on thermal desorption.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. For an overview, see H. J. Eichler, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1194 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. R. Shen, Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 16, 69 (1986); G. I. Richmond, J. M. Robinson, V. L. Shannon, Prog. Surface Sci. 28, 1 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. A. Reider, M. Huemer, A. J. Schmidt, Opt. Commun. 68, 149 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. D. Zhu, Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2883 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Wokaun, J. G. Bergman, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, D. H. Olson, Phys. Rev. B 24, 849 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. Mizrahi, J. E. Sipe, J. Opt. Soc. Am B 5, 660 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. See, for example, J. C. Quail, H. J. Simon, J. Opt. Soc. Am B5, 325 (1988), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Ricard, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A thermal mechanism for the desorption of dye molecules in thin films irradiated by nanosecond laser pulses is presented in S. E. Egorov, V. S. Letokhov, A. N. Shibanov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 940 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. F. Heinz, T. Suzuki, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1056, 73 (1989).

1989 (1)

T. F. Heinz, T. Suzuki, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1056, 73 (1989).

1988 (3)

V. Mizrahi, J. E. Sipe, J. Opt. Soc. Am B 5, 660 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Reider, M. Huemer, A. J. Schmidt, Opt. Commun. 68, 149 (1988).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Zhu, Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2883 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (2)

For an overview, see H. J. Eichler, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1194 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Shen, Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 16, 69 (1986); G. I. Richmond, J. M. Robinson, V. L. Shannon, Prog. Surface Sci. 28, 1 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

A thermal mechanism for the desorption of dye molecules in thin films irradiated by nanosecond laser pulses is presented in S. E. Egorov, V. S. Letokhov, A. N. Shibanov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 940 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Ricard, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

A. Wokaun, J. G. Bergman, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, D. H. Olson, Phys. Rev. B 24, 849 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, J. G.

A. Wokaun, J. G. Bergman, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, D. H. Olson, Phys. Rev. B 24, 849 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. K.

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Ricard, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Egorov, S. E.

A thermal mechanism for the desorption of dye molecules in thin films irradiated by nanosecond laser pulses is presented in S. E. Egorov, V. S. Letokhov, A. N. Shibanov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 940 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, H. J.

For an overview, see H. J. Eichler, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1194 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Glass, A. M.

A. Wokaun, J. G. Bergman, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, D. H. Olson, Phys. Rev. B 24, 849 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

T. F. Heinz, T. Suzuki, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1056, 73 (1989).

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Ricard, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Heritage, J. P.

A. Wokaun, J. G. Bergman, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, D. H. Olson, Phys. Rev. B 24, 849 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Huemer, M.

G. A. Reider, M. Huemer, A. J. Schmidt, Opt. Commun. 68, 149 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

A thermal mechanism for the desorption of dye molecules in thin films irradiated by nanosecond laser pulses is presented in S. E. Egorov, V. S. Letokhov, A. N. Shibanov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 940 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Liao, P. F.

A. Wokaun, J. G. Bergman, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, D. H. Olson, Phys. Rev. B 24, 849 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mizrahi, V.

V. Mizrahi, J. E. Sipe, J. Opt. Soc. Am B 5, 660 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Olson, D. H.

A. Wokaun, J. G. Bergman, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, D. H. Olson, Phys. Rev. B 24, 849 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Quail, J. C.

See, for example, J. C. Quail, H. J. Simon, J. Opt. Soc. Am B5, 325 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Rasing, Th.

X. D. Zhu, Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2883 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reider, G. A.

G. A. Reider, M. Huemer, A. J. Schmidt, Opt. Commun. 68, 149 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ricard, D.

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Ricard, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, A. J.

G. A. Reider, M. Huemer, A. J. Schmidt, Opt. Commun. 68, 149 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

X. D. Zhu, Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2883 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. R. Shen, Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 16, 69 (1986); G. I. Richmond, J. M. Robinson, V. L. Shannon, Prog. Surface Sci. 28, 1 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Ricard, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Shibanov, A. N.

A thermal mechanism for the desorption of dye molecules in thin films irradiated by nanosecond laser pulses is presented in S. E. Egorov, V. S. Letokhov, A. N. Shibanov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 940 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Simon, H. J.

See, for example, J. C. Quail, H. J. Simon, J. Opt. Soc. Am B5, 325 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

V. Mizrahi, J. E. Sipe, J. Opt. Soc. Am B 5, 660 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

T. F. Heinz, T. Suzuki, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1056, 73 (1989).

Wokaun, A.

A. Wokaun, J. G. Bergman, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, D. H. Olson, Phys. Rev. B 24, 849 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X. D.

X. D. Zhu, Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2883 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

Y. R. Shen, Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 16, 69 (1986); G. I. Richmond, J. M. Robinson, V. L. Shannon, Prog. Surface Sci. 28, 1 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

For an overview, see H. J. Eichler, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1194 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am B (1)

V. Mizrahi, J. E. Sipe, J. Opt. Soc. Am B 5, 660 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. A. Reider, M. Huemer, A. J. Schmidt, Opt. Commun. 68, 149 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Wokaun, J. G. Bergman, J. P. Heritage, A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, D. H. Olson, Phys. Rev. B 24, 849 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

X. D. Zhu, Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2883 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Ricard, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 478 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

T. F. Heinz, T. Suzuki, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1056, 73 (1989).

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A thermal mechanism for the desorption of dye molecules in thin films irradiated by nanosecond laser pulses is presented in S. E. Egorov, V. S. Letokhov, A. N. Shibanov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 940 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

See, for example, J. C. Quail, H. J. Simon, J. Opt. Soc. Am B5, 325 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diffracted SH signals from a molecular monolayer as a function of sample rotation, (a) SH intensity from the monolayer before (dashed curve) and after (solid curve) the formation of a grating, (b) SH field strength from the grating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Average surface densities for the monolayer gratings compared with the original densities of the homogeneous monolayers as a function of spatial position. The solid curves are based on the experimental diffraction patterns, and the dashed curves are obtained from the thermal desorption model. Grating (i) was formed with a desorption fluence of 1.6 J/cm2; grating (ii) with a fluence of 1.1 J/cm2.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P s 2 ω ( x ) = n = χ s ( 2 ) ( n ) : E s ω E s ω exp [ i ( 2 k x ω + n k g ) x ] .
e ˆ 2 ω ( n ) E 2 ω ( n ) = 4 π i ω c 1 sec θ ( n ) × [ e s 2 ω ( n ) χ s ( 2 ) ( n ) : e s ω e s ω ] [ E ω ] 2 .
E 2 ω ( n ) / E 2 ω ( 0 ) = N s ( n ) / N s ( 0 ) .

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