Abstract

Two-photon absorption can place a fundamental limitation on waveguide all-optical switching devices. We have derived a general criterion to describe this limitation that must be satisfied by all materials. As a specific example, we have experimentally evaluated this criterion for a lead-glass fiber.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, C. T. Seaton, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 953 (1988), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. R. Friberg, A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, B. G. Sfez, P. S. Smith, Opt. Lett. 13, 904 (1988), and references therein.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, W. C. Banyai, N. Finlayson, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, R. H. Stolen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 837 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, D. L. Weidman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. R. Friberg, P. W. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2089 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. L. Smith, CRC Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, M. J. Wever, ed. (CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio, 1986), Vol. 3, Pt. 1.
  7. R. H. Stolen, in Fiber and Integrated Optics, D. B. Ostrowsky, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1979), p. 157, and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. F. Hagen, E. Snitzer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 361 (1968).
  9. Schott Optical Glass Catalogue (Schott Optical Glass, Duryea, Pa.).
  10. D. Gloge, Appl. Opt. 10, 2252 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, T. F. Boggess, Opt. Eng. 24, 613 (1985).
  12. E. Snitzer, Department of Ceramics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08855 (personal communication).
  13. R. Adair, L. L. Chase, S. A. Payne, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 875 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. Mizrahi, K. W. DeLong, G. I. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, M. J. Andrejco, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena: Physics and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD4.

1989

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, D. L. Weidman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, C. T. Seaton, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 953 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, W. C. Banyai, N. Finlayson, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, R. H. Stolen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 837 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Friberg, A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, B. G. Sfez, P. S. Smith, Opt. Lett. 13, 904 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, S. A. Payne, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 875 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Friberg, P. W. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2089 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, T. F. Boggess, Opt. Eng. 24, 613 (1985).

1971

1968

W. F. Hagen, E. Snitzer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 361 (1968).

Adair, R.

Andrejco, M. J.

V. Mizrahi, K. W. DeLong, G. I. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, M. J. Andrejco, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena: Physics and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD4.

Banyai, W. C.

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, W. C. Banyai, N. Finlayson, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, R. H. Stolen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 837 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Boggess, T. F.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, T. F. Boggess, Opt. Eng. 24, 613 (1985).

Borrelli, N. F.

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, D. L. Weidman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chase, L. L.

DeLong, K. W.

V. Mizrahi, K. W. DeLong, G. I. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, M. J. Andrejco, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena: Physics and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD4.

Dumbaugh, W. H.

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, D. L. Weidman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Finlayson, N.

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, W. C. Banyai, N. Finlayson, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, R. H. Stolen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 837 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, C. T. Seaton, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 953 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Friberg, S. R.

Gloge, D.

Guha, S.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, T. F. Boggess, Opt. Eng. 24, 613 (1985).

Hagen, W. F.

W. F. Hagen, E. Snitzer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 361 (1968).

Hall, D. W.

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, D. L. Weidman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mizrahi, V.

V. Mizrahi, K. W. DeLong, G. I. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, M. J. Andrejco, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena: Physics and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD4.

Newhouse, M. A.

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, D. L. Weidman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

Saifi, M. A.

V. Mizrahi, K. W. DeLong, G. I. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, M. J. Andrejco, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena: Physics and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD4.

Seaton, C. T.

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, W. C. Banyai, N. Finlayson, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, R. H. Stolen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 837 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, C. T. Seaton, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 953 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Sfez, B. G.

Silberberg, Y.

Smirl, A. L.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, T. F. Boggess, Opt. Eng. 24, 613 (1985).

Smith, P. S.

Smith, P. W.

S. R. Friberg, P. W. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2089 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. L.

W. L. Smith, CRC Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, M. J. Wever, ed. (CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio, 1986), Vol. 3, Pt. 1.

Snitzer, E.

W. F. Hagen, E. Snitzer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 361 (1968).

E. Snitzer, Department of Ceramics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08855 (personal communication).

Soileau, M. J.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, T. F. Boggess, Opt. Eng. 24, 613 (1985).

Stegeman, G. I.

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, C. T. Seaton, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 953 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, W. C. Banyai, N. Finlayson, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, R. H. Stolen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 837 (1988).
[CrossRef]

V. Mizrahi, K. W. DeLong, G. I. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, M. J. Andrejco, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena: Physics and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD4.

Stolen, R. H.

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, W. C. Banyai, N. Finlayson, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, R. H. Stolen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 837 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Stolen, in Fiber and Integrated Optics, D. B. Ostrowsky, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1979), p. 157, and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Trillo, S.

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, W. C. Banyai, N. Finlayson, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, R. H. Stolen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 837 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, T. F. Boggess, Opt. Eng. 24, 613 (1985).

Vanherzeele, H.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, T. F. Boggess, Opt. Eng. 24, 613 (1985).

Wabnitz, S.

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, W. C. Banyai, N. Finlayson, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, R. H. Stolen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 837 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Weidman, D. L.

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, D. L. Weidman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

Woodall, M. A.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, T. F. Boggess, Opt. Eng. 24, 613 (1985).

Wright, E. M.

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, C. T. Seaton, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 953 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Zanoni, R.

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, C. T. Seaton, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 953 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, W. C. Banyai, N. Finlayson, C. T. Seaton, G. I. Stegeman, R. H. Stolen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 837 (1988).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Hall, M. A. Newhouse, N. F. Borrelli, W. H. Dumbaugh, D. L. Weidman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1293 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, C. T. Seaton, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 953 (1988), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. R. Friberg, P. W. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 2089 (1987).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Hagen, E. Snitzer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 361 (1968).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Eng.

E. W. Van Stryland, H. Vanherzeele, M. A. Woodall, M. J. Soileau, A. L. Smirl, S. Guha, T. F. Boggess, Opt. Eng. 24, 613 (1985).

Opt. Lett.

Other

Schott Optical Glass Catalogue (Schott Optical Glass, Duryea, Pa.).

E. Snitzer, Department of Ceramics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08855 (personal communication).

V. Mizrahi, K. W. DeLong, G. I. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, M. J. Andrejco, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Nonlinear Guided-Wave Phenomena: Physics and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper PD4.

W. L. Smith, CRC Handbook of Laser Science and Technology, M. J. Wever, ed. (CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio, 1986), Vol. 3, Pt. 1.

R. H. Stolen, in Fiber and Integrated Optics, D. B. Ostrowsky, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1979), p. 157, and references therein.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup used for measuring TPA in the lead-glass fiber. C, chopper; P, polarizer; A, aperture; D’s, detectors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured reciprocal transmission for the core light plotted as a function of total incident power. Curve (a) shows the raw data, and curve (b) shows the data after correcting for the Gaussian pulse shape. The straight-line fit, made using Eq. (7), is used to derive the TPA coefficient.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmitted core light, including coupling losses, plotted as a function of total incident power. The optical limiting is evident. It is estimated that only 35% of the incident power is actually coupled into the core. The peak power is 344 times the average power, based on 70-psec Gaussian pulses and a 50% duty factor chopper wheel.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I z = α I β I 2 ,
I trans = I inc C 1 C 2 e α L 1 + ( β L eff C 1 P inc / A eff ) .
4 π = 2 π n 2 I 0 L λ ,
β I 0 L < 1 ,
2 β λ n 2 < 1 .
8 π = Im [ χ ( 3 ) ( ω ; ω , ω , ω ) ] Re [ χ ( 3 ) ( ω ; ω , ω , ω ) ] < 1 ,
T 1 = T 0 1 + β L eff P inc C 2 e α L A eff ,

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