Abstract

We describe the application of a new high-brightness, terahertz-beam system to time-domain spectroscopy. By analyzing the propagation of terahertz electromagnetic pulses through water vapor, we have made what we believe are the most accurate measurements to date of the absorption cross sections of the water molecule for the nine strongest lines in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.45 THz.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. P. DeFonzo, M. Jarwala, C. R. Lutz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1155 (1987); A. P. DeFonzo, C. R. Lutz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 212 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1480 (1988); Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. van Exter, Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 337 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. P. Cheung, D. H. Auston, Infrared Phys. 26, 23 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Grischkowsky, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, W. J. Gallagher, M. B. Ketchen, R. Sprik, in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. Persson, S. Svanberg, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987).
  7. D. Grischkowsky, in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Infrared Physics, R. Kesselring, F. K. Kneubuhl, eds. (ETH, Zurich, 1988).
  8. Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, J.-M. Halbout, G. V. Kopcsay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 307 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Johnson, F. J. Low, A. W. Davidson, Opt. Eng. 19, 255 (1980).
  10. J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, R. A. Toth, Water Vapour Line Parameters from Microwave to Medium Infrared (Pergamon, Oxford, 1981).
  11. D. E. Burch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 1383 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. J. Liebe, Radio Sci. 20, 1069 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. T. Hall, D. Vrabec, J. M. Dowling, Appl. Opt. 5, 1147 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. E. Gray, ed., American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972).
  15. J. Kauppinen, T. Karkkainen, E. Kyro, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 71, 15 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. C. De Lucia, P. Helminger, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 4, 505 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. R. Griffiths, Chemical Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1975).
  18. W. S. Benedict, L. D. Kaplan, J. Chem. Phys. 30, 388 (1959).
  19. C. H. Townes, A. L. Schawlow, Microwave Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1955), see Eqs. (4-22) and (4-28).

1989 (2)

M. van Exter, Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 337 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, J.-M. Halbout, G. V. Kopcsay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 307 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1480 (1988); Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

A. P. DeFonzo, M. Jarwala, C. R. Lutz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1155 (1987); A. P. DeFonzo, C. R. Lutz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 212 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

K. P. Cheung, D. H. Auston, Infrared Phys. 26, 23 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

H. J. Liebe, Radio Sci. 20, 1069 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

F. C. De Lucia, P. Helminger, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 4, 505 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

C. Johnson, F. J. Low, A. W. Davidson, Opt. Eng. 19, 255 (1980).

1978 (1)

J. Kauppinen, T. Karkkainen, E. Kyro, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 71, 15 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

1966 (1)

1959 (1)

W. S. Benedict, L. D. Kaplan, J. Chem. Phys. 30, 388 (1959).

Arjavalingam, G.

Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, J.-M. Halbout, G. V. Kopcsay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 307 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Cheung, D. H. Auston, Infrared Phys. 26, 23 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Benedict, W. S.

W. S. Benedict, L. D. Kaplan, J. Chem. Phys. 30, 388 (1959).

Burch, D. E.

Camy-Peyret, C.

J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, R. A. Toth, Water Vapour Line Parameters from Microwave to Medium Infrared (Pergamon, Oxford, 1981).

Cheung, K. P.

K. P. Cheung, D. H. Auston, Infrared Phys. 26, 23 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chi, C.-C.

D. Grischkowsky, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, W. J. Gallagher, M. B. Ketchen, R. Sprik, in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. Persson, S. Svanberg, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987).

Davidson, A. W.

C. Johnson, F. J. Low, A. W. Davidson, Opt. Eng. 19, 255 (1980).

De Lucia, F. C.

F. C. De Lucia, P. Helminger, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 4, 505 (1983).
[CrossRef]

DeFonzo, A. P.

A. P. DeFonzo, M. Jarwala, C. R. Lutz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1155 (1987); A. P. DeFonzo, C. R. Lutz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 212 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dowling, J. M.

Duling, I. N.

D. Grischkowsky, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, W. J. Gallagher, M. B. Ketchen, R. Sprik, in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. Persson, S. Svanberg, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987).

Fattinger, Ch.

M. van Exter, Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 337 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1480 (1988); Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J. M.

J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, R. A. Toth, Water Vapour Line Parameters from Microwave to Medium Infrared (Pergamon, Oxford, 1981).

Gallagher, W. J.

D. Grischkowsky, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, W. J. Gallagher, M. B. Ketchen, R. Sprik, in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. Persson, S. Svanberg, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987).

Griffiths, P. R.

P. R. Griffiths, Chemical Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1975).

Grischkowsky, D.

M. van Exter, Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 337 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1480 (1988); Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Grischkowsky, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, W. J. Gallagher, M. B. Ketchen, R. Sprik, in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. Persson, S. Svanberg, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987).

D. Grischkowsky, in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Infrared Physics, R. Kesselring, F. K. Kneubuhl, eds. (ETH, Zurich, 1988).

Halbout, J.-M.

Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, J.-M. Halbout, G. V. Kopcsay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 307 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hall, R. T.

Helminger, P.

F. C. De Lucia, P. Helminger, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 4, 505 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jarwala, M.

A. P. DeFonzo, M. Jarwala, C. R. Lutz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1155 (1987); A. P. DeFonzo, C. R. Lutz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 212 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, C.

C. Johnson, F. J. Low, A. W. Davidson, Opt. Eng. 19, 255 (1980).

Kaplan, L. D.

W. S. Benedict, L. D. Kaplan, J. Chem. Phys. 30, 388 (1959).

Karkkainen, T.

J. Kauppinen, T. Karkkainen, E. Kyro, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 71, 15 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kauppinen, J.

J. Kauppinen, T. Karkkainen, E. Kyro, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 71, 15 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ketchen, M. B.

D. Grischkowsky, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, W. J. Gallagher, M. B. Ketchen, R. Sprik, in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. Persson, S. Svanberg, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987).

Kopcsay, G. V.

Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, J.-M. Halbout, G. V. Kopcsay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 307 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kyro, E.

J. Kauppinen, T. Karkkainen, E. Kyro, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 71, 15 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Liebe, H. J.

H. J. Liebe, Radio Sci. 20, 1069 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Low, F. J.

C. Johnson, F. J. Low, A. W. Davidson, Opt. Eng. 19, 255 (1980).

Lutz, C. R.

A. P. DeFonzo, M. Jarwala, C. R. Lutz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1155 (1987); A. P. DeFonzo, C. R. Lutz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 212 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pastol, Y.

Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, J.-M. Halbout, G. V. Kopcsay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 307 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Schawlow, A. L.

C. H. Townes, A. L. Schawlow, Microwave Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1955), see Eqs. (4-22) and (4-28).

Smith, P. R.

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sprik, R.

D. Grischkowsky, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, W. J. Gallagher, M. B. Ketchen, R. Sprik, in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. Persson, S. Svanberg, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987).

Toth, R. A.

J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, R. A. Toth, Water Vapour Line Parameters from Microwave to Medium Infrared (Pergamon, Oxford, 1981).

Townes, C. H.

C. H. Townes, A. L. Schawlow, Microwave Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1955), see Eqs. (4-22) and (4-28).

van Exter, M.

M. van Exter, Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 337 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Vrabec, D.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1480 (1988); Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 490 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. van Exter, Ch. Fattinger, D. Grischkowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 337 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. P. DeFonzo, M. Jarwala, C. R. Lutz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1155 (1987); A. P. DeFonzo, C. R. Lutz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 212 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pastol, G. Arjavalingam, J.-M. Halbout, G. V. Kopcsay, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 307 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. R. Smith, D. H. Auston, M. C. Nuss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 255 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. (1)

K. P. Cheung, D. H. Auston, Infrared Phys. 26, 23 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves (1)

F. C. De Lucia, P. Helminger, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 4, 505 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

W. S. Benedict, L. D. Kaplan, J. Chem. Phys. 30, 388 (1959).

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (1)

J. Kauppinen, T. Karkkainen, E. Kyro, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 71, 15 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. Johnson, F. J. Low, A. W. Davidson, Opt. Eng. 19, 255 (1980).

Radio Sci. (1)

H. J. Liebe, Radio Sci. 20, 1069 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

D. E. Gray, ed., American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972).

C. H. Townes, A. L. Schawlow, Microwave Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1955), see Eqs. (4-22) and (4-28).

P. R. Griffiths, Chemical Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1975).

J. M. Flaud, C. Camy-Peyret, R. A. Toth, Water Vapour Line Parameters from Microwave to Medium Infrared (Pergamon, Oxford, 1981).

D. Grischkowsky, C.-C. Chi, I. N. Duling, W. J. Gallagher, M. B. Ketchen, R. Sprik, in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. Persson, S. Svanberg, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987).

D. Grischkowsky, in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Infrared Physics, R. Kesselring, F. K. Kneubuhl, eds. (ETH, Zurich, 1988).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Ultrafast dipolar antenna, (b) Terahertz optics.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured electrical pulse of the freely propagating terahertz beam in pure nitrogen. The inset shows pulse on an expanded time scale, (b) Measured electrical pulse with 1.5 Torr of water vapor in the enclosure. The inset shows pulse on a 20× expanded vertical scale.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Amplitude spectra of Figs. 2(b) and 2(c). (b) Amplitude absorption coefficient obtained from Fig. 3(a). (c) Relative phase of the spectral components of Fig. 3(a).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of Our Experimental Results with Theoretical Predictions for the Indicated Lines (in terahertz)a

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