Abstract

A high-resolution method that allows direct measurements of the intercenter cone distance in the living human fovea is proposed. The experimental technique is similar to that used in stellar speckle interferometry. It is based on the recording and posterior processing of coherent short-exposure images of a small area of the central fovea. By using this optical–digital procedure, we have obtained what are to our knowledge the first objective measurements in vivo of the cone spacing in the human fovea. The reconstruction of the whole spatial information of the cone mosaic would also be possible by further improvements of the technique by subsequent application of image-reconstruction algorithms.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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1989

P. Artal, J. Santamaría, J. Bescós, Opt. Eng. 28, 687 (1989).

1988

1987

1985

1984

J. Hirsch, P. Hylton, Vision Res. 24, 347 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

Y. I. Yellott, Vision Res. 22, 1205 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1951

1935

G. Osterberg, Acta Ophthalmol. Suppl. 6, 1 (1935).

Artal, P.

P. Artal, J. Santamaría, J. Bescós, Opt. Eng. 28, 687 (1989).

P. Artal, J. Santamaría, J. Bescós, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1201 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Santamaría, P. Artal, J. Bescós, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 1109 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Artal, “Generation of foveal retinal images: contribution of image quality of the eye and sampling in the photoreceptors,” submitted to J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.

Bescós, J.

Bescós, R.

Colleta, N. J.

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, O. Parker, A. E. Hendrickson, R. E. Kalina, Science 236, 579 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985).

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, O. Parker, A. E. Hendrickson, R. E. Kalina, Science 236, 579 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirsch, J.

J. Hirsch, P. Hylton, Vision Res. 24, 347 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hylton, P.

J. Hirsch, P. Hylton, Vision Res. 24, 347 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, O. Parker, A. E. Hendrickson, R. E. Kalina, Science 236, 579 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Land, M. F.

M. F. Land, A. W. Snyder, Vision Res. 25, 1513 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Navarro, R.

O’Brien, B.

Osterberg, G.

G. Osterberg, Acta Ophthalmol. Suppl. 6, 1 (1935).

Parker, O.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, O. Parker, A. E. Hendrickson, R. E. Kalina, Science 236, 579 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Santamaria, J.

Santamaría, J.

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, O. Parker, A. E. Hendrickson, R. E. Kalina, Science 236, 579 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snyder, A. W.

M. F. Land, A. W. Snyder, Vision Res. 25, 1513 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. R.

Yellott, Y. I.

Y. I. Yellott, Vision Res. 22, 1205 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Ophthalmol. Suppl.

G. Osterberg, Acta Ophthalmol. Suppl. 6, 1 (1935).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Eng.

P. Artal, J. Santamaría, J. Bescós, Opt. Eng. 28, 687 (1989).

Science

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, O. Parker, A. E. Hendrickson, R. E. Kalina, Science 236, 579 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vision Res.

D. R. Williams, Vision Res. 28, 433 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, Vision Res. 35, 195 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Land, A. W. Snyder, Vision Res. 25, 1513 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Y. I. Yellott, Vision Res. 22, 1205 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hirsch, P. Hylton, Vision Res. 24, 347 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

P. Artal, “Generation of foveal retinal images: contribution of image quality of the eye and sampling in the photoreceptors,” submitted to J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.

J. C. Dainty, ed., Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984).

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the recording of the short-term-exposure foveal images. DF, density filter; LT, light trap; C, camera; MD, digital microdensitometer; COM, computer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical examples of short-exposure (4-msec) coherent images from the foveal cone mosaic.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two-dimensional power spectrum of the instantaneous image shown in Fig. 2(a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Average of two-dimensional power spectrum of 10 instantaneous images of the central fovea. 1/s is the spatial frequency value corresponding to the mean interdistance between rows of cones.

Equations (2)

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i k ( x , y ) = | r ( x , y ) a k ( x , y ) | 2 ,
| Ι ¯ | 2 = 1 Ν k = 1 Ν | F T [ i k ( x , y ) ] | 2 ,

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