Abstract

Large temporal front distortion of femtosecond pulses occurs in lenses having chromatic aberration. The effect is due to the difference between the phase and group velocities. Equations describing the pulse-front delay in singlet lenses, achromats, and compound lenses are presented. The pulse-front delay is several orders of magnitude larger than the broadening caused by group-velocity dispersion in the lens material. Delays occurring in Fresnel-type zone plates are also described.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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1988

H. Staerk, J. Ihlemann, A. Helmbold, Laser Optoelektron. 20, 6 (1988).

1987

1985

1984

1977

1975

M. R. Topp, G. C. Orner, Opt. Commun. 13, 276 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1969

E. B. Treacy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 454 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1965

Baer, T.

Bor, Z.

Z. Bor, B. Rácz, Appl. Opt. 24, 3440 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Bor, B. Rácz, Opt. Commun. 54, 165 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Z. Bor, “Distortion of femtosecond laser pulses in lenses and lens systems,” J. Mod. Opt. (to be published).

Z. Bor, Am. J. Phys. (to be published).

Cohen, L. G.

Ditchburn, R. W.

R. W. Ditchburn, Light (Academic, New York, 1976).

Fork, R. L.

Gordon, J. P.

Helmbold, A.

H. Staerk, J. Ihlemann, A. Helmbold, Laser Optoelektron. 20, 6 (1988).

J. Ihlemann, A. Helmbold, H. Staerk, “Chromatic time lag in picosecond-streak-camera objectives,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).

Ihlemann, J.

H. Staerk, J. Ihlemann, A. Helmbold, Laser Optoelektron. 20, 6 (1988).

J. Ihlemann, A. Helmbold, H. Staerk, “Chromatic time lag in picosecond-streak-camera objectives,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).

Kafka, J. D.

Kühnle, G.

S. Szatmári, G. Kühnle, “Pulse front and pulse duration distortion in refractive optics, and its compensation,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Lin, C.

Malitson, I. H.

Martinez, O. E.

Orner, G. C.

M. R. Topp, G. C. Orner, Opt. Commun. 13, 276 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Rácz, B.

Staerk, H.

H. Staerk, J. Ihlemann, A. Helmbold, Laser Optoelektron. 20, 6 (1988).

J. Ihlemann, A. Helmbold, H. Staerk, “Chromatic time lag in picosecond-streak-camera objectives,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).

Szatmári, S.

S. Szatmári, G. Kühnle, “Pulse front and pulse duration distortion in refractive optics, and its compensation,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Topp, M. R.

M. R. Topp, G. C. Orner, Opt. Commun. 13, 276 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Treacy, E. B.

E. B. Treacy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 454 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

E. B. Treacy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 454 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Laser Optoelektron.

H. Staerk, J. Ihlemann, A. Helmbold, Laser Optoelektron. 20, 6 (1988).

Opt. Commun.

Z. Bor, B. Rácz, Opt. Commun. 54, 165 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Topp, G. C. Orner, Opt. Commun. 13, 276 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

R. W. Ditchburn, Light (Academic, New York, 1976).

Z. Bor, Am. J. Phys. (to be published).

J. Ihlemann, A. Helmbold, H. Staerk, “Chromatic time lag in picosecond-streak-camera objectives,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. (to be published).

Z. Bor, “Distortion of femtosecond laser pulses in lenses and lens systems,” J. Mod. Opt. (to be published).

S. Szatmári, G. Kühnle, “Pulse front and pulse duration distortion in refractive optics, and its compensation,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Owing to the difference between the group and phase velocities, the pulse front is delayed with respect to the phase front. The delay is constant along one ray. At a distance L behind the focus the pulse front is flat.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

For an achromat the delay between the pulse and phase fronts is constant over the cross section of the lens.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

For a focusing zone plate the pulse front is ahead of the phase front. The delay can be calculated using Eq. (9), obtained for refractive lenses.

Equations (13)

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Δ T ( r ) = l c ( λ d n d λ ) ,
Δ T ( r ) = r 0 2 r 2 2 cf ( n 1 ) ( λ d n d λ ) ,
L = f n 1 ( λ d n d λ ) ,
T ( r ) = d 1 c ( n 1 λ d n 1 d λ ) + d 2 c ( n 2 λ d n 2 d λ ) + f c ,
Δ τ ( r ) = λ c d 2 n d λ 2 Δ λl ( r ) ,
Δ T ( r ) Δ τ ( r ) = 2 A N ,
Δ τ = d T ( r ) d λ Δ λ ,
Δ τ ( r ) = λ 2 2 cN ( d 1 d 2 n 1 d λ 2 + d 2 d 2 n 2 d λ 2 ) .
Δ T ( r ) = r 0 2 r 2 2 c f 2 λ d f d λ ,
ρ i = ρ 1 i
f = ρ 1 2 / λ .
Δ T ( r ) = r 0 2 r 2 2 fc .
d f d λ = f λ .

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