Abstract

Up to 50% cw phase-conjugate reflectivity has been obtained with a 30-mW diode laser at 0.85 μm by means of resonant degenerate four-wave mixing on an optically thick, 1-mm-long Cs vapor cell. Self-oscillation of a Fabry–Perot cavity containing this Cs cell is demonstrated.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 7, 486 (1982); J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fisher, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450 (1982); Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 689 (1982).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. Ducloy, in Atomic Physics 11, S. Haroche, J.-C. Gay, G. Grynberg, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1989), p. 753.
  4. S. Le Boiteux, P. Simoneau, D. Bloch, F. A. M. de Oliveira, M. Ducloy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1229 (1986), and references therein.
    [Crossref]
  5. R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, Opt. Lett. 6, 544 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. R. R. Leite, P. Simoneau, D. Bloch, S. Le Boiteux, M. Ducloy, Europhys. Lett. 2, 747 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Pinard, D. Granclement, G. Grynberg, Europhys. Lett. 2, 755 (1986); D. Granclement, G. Grynberg, M. Pinard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 44 (1987); see also G. Grynberg, M. Pinard, M. Faucheux, Opt. Lett. 14, 63(1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. C. E. Tanner, C. E. Wieman, Phys. Rev. A 38, 162 (1988), and references therein.
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, Opt. Lett. 8, 477 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. F. Patterson, J. Brock, M. Caponi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4(13), P28 (1987).
  11. P. F. Liao, D. M. Bloom, N. P. Economou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 813 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  12. R. L. Abrams, R. C. Lind, Opt. Lett. 2, 94 (1978); Opt. Lett. 3, 205 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. C. Gregory, Phys. Rev. 61, 465 (1942); C. L. Chen, A. V. Phelps, Phys. Rev. 173, 62 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Allegrini, C. Gabbanini, L. Moi, J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. 46, C1 (1985).
    [Crossref]

1988 (1)

C. E. Tanner, C. E. Wieman, Phys. Rev. A 38, 162 (1988), and references therein.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

F. Patterson, J. Brock, M. Caponi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4(13), P28 (1987).

1986 (3)

J. R. R. Leite, P. Simoneau, D. Bloch, S. Le Boiteux, M. Ducloy, Europhys. Lett. 2, 747 (1986).
[Crossref]

M. Pinard, D. Granclement, G. Grynberg, Europhys. Lett. 2, 755 (1986); D. Granclement, G. Grynberg, M. Pinard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 44 (1987); see also G. Grynberg, M. Pinard, M. Faucheux, Opt. Lett. 14, 63(1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Le Boiteux, P. Simoneau, D. Bloch, F. A. M. de Oliveira, M. Ducloy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1229 (1986), and references therein.
[Crossref]

1985 (2)

M. Cronin-Golomb, K. Y. Lau, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 567 (1985); B. T. Anderson, P. R. Forman, F. C. Jahoda, Opt. Lett. 10, 627 (1985); B. Imbert, H. Rajbenbach, S. Mallick, J.-P. Herriau, J.-P. Huignard, Opt. Lett. 13, 327 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Allegrini, C. Gabbanini, L. Moi, J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. 46, C1 (1985).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, Opt. Lett. 6, 544 (1981).
[Crossref]

1978 (2)

P. F. Liao, D. M. Bloom, N. P. Economou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 813 (1978).
[Crossref]

R. L. Abrams, R. C. Lind, Opt. Lett. 2, 94 (1978); Opt. Lett. 3, 205 (1978).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1942 (1)

C. Gregory, Phys. Rev. 61, 465 (1942); C. L. Chen, A. V. Phelps, Phys. Rev. 173, 62 (1968).
[Crossref]

Abrams, R. L.

Allegrini, M.

M. Allegrini, C. Gabbanini, L. Moi, J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. 46, C1 (1985).
[Crossref]

Bloch, D.

S. Le Boiteux, P. Simoneau, D. Bloch, F. A. M. de Oliveira, M. Ducloy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1229 (1986), and references therein.
[Crossref]

J. R. R. Leite, P. Simoneau, D. Bloch, S. Le Boiteux, M. Ducloy, Europhys. Lett. 2, 747 (1986).
[Crossref]

Bloom, D. M.

P. F. Liao, D. M. Bloom, N. P. Economou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 813 (1978).
[Crossref]

Brock, J.

F. Patterson, J. Brock, M. Caponi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4(13), P28 (1987).

Caponi, M.

F. Patterson, J. Brock, M. Caponi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4(13), P28 (1987).

Chemla, D. S.

Cronin-Golomb, M.

M. Cronin-Golomb, K. Y. Lau, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 567 (1985); B. T. Anderson, P. R. Forman, F. C. Jahoda, Opt. Lett. 10, 627 (1985); B. Imbert, H. Rajbenbach, S. Mallick, J.-P. Herriau, J.-P. Huignard, Opt. Lett. 13, 327 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Oliveira, F. A. M.

S. Le Boiteux, P. Simoneau, D. Bloch, F. A. M. de Oliveira, M. Ducloy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1229 (1986), and references therein.
[Crossref]

Ducloy, M.

S. Le Boiteux, P. Simoneau, D. Bloch, F. A. M. de Oliveira, M. Ducloy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1229 (1986), and references therein.
[Crossref]

J. R. R. Leite, P. Simoneau, D. Bloch, S. Le Boiteux, M. Ducloy, Europhys. Lett. 2, 747 (1986).
[Crossref]

M. Ducloy, in Atomic Physics 11, S. Haroche, J.-C. Gay, G. Grynberg, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1989), p. 753.

Economou, N. P.

P. F. Liao, D. M. Bloom, N. P. Economou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 813 (1978).
[Crossref]

Feinberg, J.

Gabbanini, C.

M. Allegrini, C. Gabbanini, L. Moi, J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. 46, C1 (1985).
[Crossref]

Gossard, A. C.

Granclement, D.

M. Pinard, D. Granclement, G. Grynberg, Europhys. Lett. 2, 755 (1986); D. Granclement, G. Grynberg, M. Pinard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 44 (1987); see also G. Grynberg, M. Pinard, M. Faucheux, Opt. Lett. 14, 63(1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregory, C.

C. Gregory, Phys. Rev. 61, 465 (1942); C. L. Chen, A. V. Phelps, Phys. Rev. 173, 62 (1968).
[Crossref]

Grynberg, G.

M. Pinard, D. Granclement, G. Grynberg, Europhys. Lett. 2, 755 (1986); D. Granclement, G. Grynberg, M. Pinard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 44 (1987); see also G. Grynberg, M. Pinard, M. Faucheux, Opt. Lett. 14, 63(1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lau, K. Y.

M. Cronin-Golomb, K. Y. Lau, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 567 (1985); B. T. Anderson, P. R. Forman, F. C. Jahoda, Opt. Lett. 10, 627 (1985); B. Imbert, H. Rajbenbach, S. Mallick, J.-P. Herriau, J.-P. Huignard, Opt. Lett. 13, 327 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le Boiteux, S.

S. Le Boiteux, P. Simoneau, D. Bloch, F. A. M. de Oliveira, M. Ducloy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1229 (1986), and references therein.
[Crossref]

J. R. R. Leite, P. Simoneau, D. Bloch, S. Le Boiteux, M. Ducloy, Europhys. Lett. 2, 747 (1986).
[Crossref]

Leite, J. R. R.

J. R. R. Leite, P. Simoneau, D. Bloch, S. Le Boiteux, M. Ducloy, Europhys. Lett. 2, 747 (1986).
[Crossref]

Liao, P. F.

P. F. Liao, D. M. Bloom, N. P. Economou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 813 (1978).
[Crossref]

Lind, R. C.

Miller, D. A. B.

Moi, L.

M. Allegrini, C. Gabbanini, L. Moi, J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. 46, C1 (1985).
[Crossref]

Patterson, F.

F. Patterson, J. Brock, M. Caponi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4(13), P28 (1987).

Pinard, M.

M. Pinard, D. Granclement, G. Grynberg, Europhys. Lett. 2, 755 (1986); D. Granclement, G. Grynberg, M. Pinard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 44 (1987); see also G. Grynberg, M. Pinard, M. Faucheux, Opt. Lett. 14, 63(1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simoneau, P.

S. Le Boiteux, P. Simoneau, D. Bloch, F. A. M. de Oliveira, M. Ducloy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1229 (1986), and references therein.
[Crossref]

J. R. R. Leite, P. Simoneau, D. Bloch, S. Le Boiteux, M. Ducloy, Europhys. Lett. 2, 747 (1986).
[Crossref]

Smith, P. W.

Steel, D. G.

R. C. Lind, D. G. Steel, Opt. Lett. 6, 544 (1981).
[Crossref]

Tanner, C. E.

C. E. Tanner, C. E. Wieman, Phys. Rev. A 38, 162 (1988), and references therein.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiegmann, W.

Wieman, C. E.

C. E. Tanner, C. E. Wieman, Phys. Rev. A 38, 162 (1988), and references therein.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yariv, A.

M. Cronin-Golomb, K. Y. Lau, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 567 (1985); B. T. Anderson, P. R. Forman, F. C. Jahoda, Opt. Lett. 10, 627 (1985); B. Imbert, H. Rajbenbach, S. Mallick, J.-P. Herriau, J.-P. Huignard, Opt. Lett. 13, 327 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Cronin-Golomb, K. Y. Lau, A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 567 (1985); B. T. Anderson, P. R. Forman, F. C. Jahoda, Opt. Lett. 10, 627 (1985); B. Imbert, H. Rajbenbach, S. Mallick, J.-P. Herriau, J.-P. Huignard, Opt. Lett. 13, 327 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. F. Liao, D. M. Bloom, N. P. Economou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 813 (1978).
[Crossref]

Europhys. Lett. (2)

J. R. R. Leite, P. Simoneau, D. Bloch, S. Le Boiteux, M. Ducloy, Europhys. Lett. 2, 747 (1986).
[Crossref]

M. Pinard, D. Granclement, G. Grynberg, Europhys. Lett. 2, 755 (1986); D. Granclement, G. Grynberg, M. Pinard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 44 (1987); see also G. Grynberg, M. Pinard, M. Faucheux, Opt. Lett. 14, 63(1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Le Boiteux, P. Simoneau, D. Bloch, F. A. M. de Oliveira, M. Ducloy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1229 (1986), and references therein.
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

F. Patterson, J. Brock, M. Caponi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4(13), P28 (1987).

J. Phys. (Paris) (1)

M. Allegrini, C. Gabbanini, L. Moi, J. Phys. (Paris) Colloq. 46, C1 (1985).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. (1)

C. Gregory, Phys. Rev. 61, 465 (1942); C. L. Chen, A. V. Phelps, Phys. Rev. 173, 62 (1968).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

C. E. Tanner, C. E. Wieman, Phys. Rev. A 38, 162 (1988), and references therein.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. Ducloy, in Atomic Physics 11, S. Haroche, J.-C. Gay, G. Grynberg, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1989), p. 753.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup for degenerate FWM in Cs vapor with a diode laser (DL). GP’s, Glan prisms; C, chopper; PD, photodiode. (b) The setup modification used for the analysis of the conjugate/probe retroreflection. A piezo-mounted mirror (M-PZT) is inserted to obtain the conjugate oscillation of a Fabry–Perot cavity. L’s, lenses; M’s, mirrors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Simultaneous recordings of saturated absorption spectrum (SA) and phase-conjugate emission (PC) under conditions of weak saturation and low pressure (5-mm Cs cell) on the D2 transitions: F = 4 → F′= 5 (point a), 4 (point b), 3 (point c). The peaks between the main lines are Doppler crossover resonances. The diode-laser frequency is increasing toward the left, (b) The Cs 6S1/2 → 6P3/2 hyper-fine structure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cs PC spectrum under conditions of strong saturation and an optically thick 1-mm cell. Curves a, b, and c correspond to various alignments of the incident beams, resulting in different beam overlap. In these spectra typical PC reflectivities are ~30%. The central dip is due to line-center absorption for the F = 4 → F′ = 3, 4, 5 resonance transitions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Signals obtained with the setup of Fig. 1(b) in the vicinity of the F = 3 → F′ = 3, 4, 5 resonance transitions. Curve a, PC signal (in the absence of probe return). Curve b, interference signal between return probe and PC emission (the dashed line corresponds to 100% probe return). Far from the resonance, the probe reflection is only 60% owing to Fresnel losses on the lenses, the cell, and the oven windows. Curve c, PC oscillation of a Fabry–Perot cavity containing the Cs cell.

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