Abstract

Numerical solution of a general rate-equation model of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier highlights several important features of the device. A difference in strong-signal gain between copropagating and counterpropagating signal pump schemes in the presence of pump excited-state absorption is predicted, and this is confirmed by experiment. The detriment in the noise figure previously associated with counterpropagating schemes for only small-signal conditions is shown to be similar for strong signals, corresponding to a power-amplifier operating regime. In addition, a correction to the noise figure is given for the limit of a low-gain amplifier.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 1027 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  2. E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, Opt. Lett. 12, 888 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. R. I. Laming, P. R. Morkel, D. N. Payne, L. Reekie, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1988), p. 54.
  4. R. I. Laming, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, P. L. Scrivener, F. Fontana, A. Righetti, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1988), Pt. 2, p. 25.
  5. M. Montecchi, A. Mecozzi, M. Tamburrini, presented at the European Conference on Optics and Optical Systems and Applications, Birmingham, UK, 1988.
  6. R. Olshansky, Electron. Lett. 24, 1363 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. R. Armitage, Appl. Opt. 27, 4831 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 835 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  9. V. P. Gabontsev, S. M. Matitsiu, A. A. Iseneev, V. B. Kravchenko, Opt. Laser Technol. (August1982), p. 189.
    [Crossref]
  10. R. I. Laming, S. B. Poole, E. Tarbox, Opt. Lett. 13, 1084 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, London, 1983), p. 314.

1989 (1)

E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 835 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (3)

1987 (2)

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 1027 (1987).
[Crossref]

E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, Opt. Lett. 12, 888 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

V. P. Gabontsev, S. M. Matitsiu, A. A. Iseneev, V. B. Kravchenko, Opt. Laser Technol. (August1982), p. 189.
[Crossref]

Armitage, J. R.

Becker, P. C.

Desurvire, E.

E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 835 (1989).
[Crossref]

E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, Opt. Lett. 12, 888 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fontana, F.

R. I. Laming, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, P. L. Scrivener, F. Fontana, A. Righetti, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1988), Pt. 2, p. 25.

Gabontsev, V. P.

V. P. Gabontsev, S. M. Matitsiu, A. A. Iseneev, V. B. Kravchenko, Opt. Laser Technol. (August1982), p. 189.
[Crossref]

Iseneev, A. A.

V. P. Gabontsev, S. M. Matitsiu, A. A. Iseneev, V. B. Kravchenko, Opt. Laser Technol. (August1982), p. 189.
[Crossref]

Jauncey, I. M.

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 1027 (1987).
[Crossref]

Kravchenko, V. B.

V. P. Gabontsev, S. M. Matitsiu, A. A. Iseneev, V. B. Kravchenko, Opt. Laser Technol. (August1982), p. 189.
[Crossref]

Laming, R. I.

R. I. Laming, S. B. Poole, E. Tarbox, Opt. Lett. 13, 1084 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. I. Laming, P. R. Morkel, D. N. Payne, L. Reekie, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1988), p. 54.

R. I. Laming, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, P. L. Scrivener, F. Fontana, A. Righetti, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1988), Pt. 2, p. 25.

Love, J. D.

A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, London, 1983), p. 314.

Matitsiu, S. M.

V. P. Gabontsev, S. M. Matitsiu, A. A. Iseneev, V. B. Kravchenko, Opt. Laser Technol. (August1982), p. 189.
[Crossref]

Mears, R. J.

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 1027 (1987).
[Crossref]

Mecozzi, A.

M. Montecchi, A. Mecozzi, M. Tamburrini, presented at the European Conference on Optics and Optical Systems and Applications, Birmingham, UK, 1988.

Montecchi, M.

M. Montecchi, A. Mecozzi, M. Tamburrini, presented at the European Conference on Optics and Optical Systems and Applications, Birmingham, UK, 1988.

Morkel, P. R.

R. I. Laming, P. R. Morkel, D. N. Payne, L. Reekie, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1988), p. 54.

Olshansky, R.

R. Olshansky, Electron. Lett. 24, 1363 (1988).
[Crossref]

Payne, D. N.

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 1027 (1987).
[Crossref]

R. I. Laming, P. R. Morkel, D. N. Payne, L. Reekie, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1988), p. 54.

R. I. Laming, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, P. L. Scrivener, F. Fontana, A. Righetti, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1988), Pt. 2, p. 25.

Poole, S. B.

Reekie, L.

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 1027 (1987).
[Crossref]

R. I. Laming, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, P. L. Scrivener, F. Fontana, A. Righetti, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1988), Pt. 2, p. 25.

R. I. Laming, P. R. Morkel, D. N. Payne, L. Reekie, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1988), p. 54.

Righetti, A.

R. I. Laming, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, P. L. Scrivener, F. Fontana, A. Righetti, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1988), Pt. 2, p. 25.

Scrivener, P. L.

R. I. Laming, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, P. L. Scrivener, F. Fontana, A. Righetti, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1988), Pt. 2, p. 25.

Simpson, J. R.

E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 835 (1989).
[Crossref]

E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, Opt. Lett. 12, 888 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, London, 1983), p. 314.

Tamburrini, M.

M. Montecchi, A. Mecozzi, M. Tamburrini, presented at the European Conference on Optics and Optical Systems and Applications, Birmingham, UK, 1988.

Tarbox, E.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (2)

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 1027 (1987).
[Crossref]

R. Olshansky, Electron. Lett. 24, 1363 (1988).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 835 (1989).
[Crossref]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

V. P. Gabontsev, S. M. Matitsiu, A. A. Iseneev, V. B. Kravchenko, Opt. Laser Technol. (August1982), p. 189.
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (4)

R. I. Laming, P. R. Morkel, D. N. Payne, L. Reekie, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communications (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1988), p. 54.

R. I. Laming, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, P. L. Scrivener, F. Fontana, A. Righetti, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1988), Pt. 2, p. 25.

M. Montecchi, A. Mecozzi, M. Tamburrini, presented at the European Conference on Optics and Optical Systems and Applications, Birmingham, UK, 1988.

A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, London, 1983), p. 314.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Theoretical (curves) and experimental (points) gain versus the fiber length for 100 mW of pump power at 665 nm. Copropagating signal inputs were 0.1 μW (open circles) and 100 μW (filled circles) at 1.536 μm; counterpropagating signal inputs were 0.1 , μW (crosses) and 100 μW (diamonds) at 1.536 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Theoretical (curves) and experimental (points) gain versus the fiber length for 15 mW of pump power at 980 nm for copropagating and counterpropagating 0.1-μW (circles) and 100-μW (squares) signal inputs at 1.536 μW.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Theoretical noise figure (NF) versus the fiber length for (a) 100 mW of pump power at 665 nm and (b) 15 mW of pump power at 980 nm. The signal inputs are 0.1 μW (small) and 100 μW (large) at 1.536 μm.

Equations (9)

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d N 2 ( z ) d t = W p ( z ) [ N tot N 2 ( z ) ] W s ( z ) [ ( 1 + α ) N 2 ( z ) α N tot ] N 2 ( z ) τ 21 ,
d P p + ( z ) d z = P p + ( z ) σ abs [ N tot N 2 ( z ) ] P p + ( z ) σ ESA N 2 ( z ) ,
d P s + , ( z ) d z = P s + , ( z ) γ ( z ) ,
d P f + , ( z ) d z = μ ( z ) h ν Δ ν γ ( z ) + P f + , ( z ) γ ( z ) ,
local gain γ ( z ) = η s σ 21 [ ( 1 + α ) N 2 ( z ) α N tot ] .
N 2 ( z ) = N tot [ W p ( z ) + α W s ( z ) ] W p ( z ) + ( 1 + α ) W s ( z ) + 1 / τ f .
W s ( z ) = P s + , ( z ) + P f + , ( z ) h ν s a σ 21 η s ,
W p ( z ) = P p + ( z ) h ν p a σ abs η p ,
μ eff = P f 1 + , 2 h ν Δ ν ( G 1 ) .

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