Abstract

Simultaneous measurement of the signal-noise level and the corresponding shot-noise level using balanced direct detectors with a delay line is demonstrated. We have observed 1.3-dB squeezing from a constant-current-driven semiconductor laser, which is consistent with 3-dB squeezed noise at the output of the laser when the detection efficiency is taken into account.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, J. F. Valley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutler, R. G. Devol, D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L. A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. Hall, H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. W. Maeda, P. Kumar, J. H. Shapiro, Opt. Lett. 12, 161 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Itaya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1000 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. P. Yuen, Phys. Rev. A 13, 2226 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Jackiw, J. Math. Phys. 9, 339 (1968); M. Kitagawa, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 34, 3974 (1986); K. Watanabe, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 38, 3556 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 792 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. P. Yuen, V. W. S. Chan, Opt. Lett. 8, 177 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. L. Abbas, V. W. S. Chan, T. K. Yee, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1110 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 6017 (1986).

1988 (1)

S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 792 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

M. W. Maeda, P. Kumar, J. H. Shapiro, Opt. Lett. 12, 161 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Itaya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1000 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (3)

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutler, R. G. Devol, D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. Hall, H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 6017 (1986).

1985 (2)

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, J. F. Valley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Abbas, V. W. S. Chan, T. K. Yee, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1110 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1976 (1)

H. P. Yuen, Phys. Rev. A 13, 2226 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

R. Jackiw, J. Math. Phys. 9, 339 (1968); M. Kitagawa, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 34, 3974 (1986); K. Watanabe, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 38, 3556 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abbas, G. L.

G. L. Abbas, V. W. S. Chan, T. K. Yee, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1110 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chan, V. W. S.

G. L. Abbas, V. W. S. Chan, T. K. Yee, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1110 (1985).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Yuen, V. W. S. Chan, Opt. Lett. 8, 177 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devol, R. G.

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutler, R. G. Devol, D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J.

L. A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. Hall, H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollberg, L. W.

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, J. F. Valley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itaya, Y.

S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Itaya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1000 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackiw, R.

R. Jackiw, J. Math. Phys. 9, 339 (1968); M. Kitagawa, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 34, 3974 (1986); K. Watanabe, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 38, 3556 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimble, H. J.

L. A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. Hall, H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, P.

Levenson, M. D.

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutler, R. G. Devol, D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Machida, S.

S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 792 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Itaya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1000 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 6017 (1986).

Maeda, M. W.

Mertz, J. C.

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, J. F. Valley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perlmutler, S. H.

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutler, R. G. Devol, D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shapiro, J. H.

Shelby, R. M.

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutler, R. G. Devol, D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slusher, R. E.

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, J. F. Valley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valley, J. F.

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, J. F. Valley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walls, D. F.

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutler, R. G. Devol, D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, H.

L. A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. Hall, H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, L. A.

L. A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. Hall, H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, Y.

S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 792 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Itaya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1000 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 6017 (1986).

Yee, T. K.

G. L. Abbas, V. W. S. Chan, T. K. Yee, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1110 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Yuen, H. P.

Yurke, B.

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, J. F. Valley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

G. L. Abbas, V. W. S. Chan, T. K. Yee, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1110 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 6017 (1986).

J. Math. Phys. (1)

R. Jackiw, J. Math. Phys. 9, 339 (1968); M. Kitagawa, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 34, 3974 (1986); K. Watanabe, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. A 38, 3556 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

H. P. Yuen, Phys. Rev. A 13, 2226 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 792 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Machida, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Itaya, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1000 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Slusher, L. W. Hollberg, B. Yurke, J. C. Mertz, J. F. Valley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2409 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Shelby, M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutler, R. G. Devol, D. F. Walls, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 691 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Wu, H. J. Kimble, J. Hall, H. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2520 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Balanced homodyne receiver for measuring squeezed vacuum states. The shot-noise level is calibrated by blocking the signal wave. (b) A direct detection scheme for measuring number-phase squeezed states. The shot-noise level is calibrated by rotating the signal polarization with a half-wave plate (HWP) and dividing the signal wave and directing it into two photodetectors with a polarization beam splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Balanced direct detectors with a delay line and attenuators (ATT). (b) Current noise spectra of an amplitude antisqueezed light and an amplitude squeezed light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Current noise spectra for bias levels I/Ith = 1.03 (curve A) and I/Ith = 13.6 (curve C). Curve B is the amplifier thermal noise. Curves D and E are obtained when one of the two signal beams is blocked for I/Ith = 13.6. Curve F is the sum of the noise curves D and E.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Current noise spectra normalized by the shot-noise level for bias levels I/Ith = 1.03 (upper curve) and I/Ith = 13.6 (lower curve). The amplifier thermal noise is subtracted in the normalization process.

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