Abstract

A homogeneous propagating wave falling onto submicrometer objects is partially diffracted into evanescent waves. The use of a scattering probe of subwavelength size can convert the evanescent waves into homogeneous ones and make their detection possible. The resulting propagating waves can then provide information about the subwavelength object. Relations with preliminary experiments are discussed.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. A. Massey, Appl. Opt. 23, 658 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. Betzig, A. Harootunian, A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, Appl. Opt. 26, 1890 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. U. Fischer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B3, 386 (1985).
  4. D. Pohl, N. Denk, M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. M. Guerra, presented at the International Congress on Optical Science and Engineering, Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany, 1988.
  6. U. Durig, D. Pohl, F. Rohner, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrel, Phys. Rev. B 39, 767 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, M. Spajer, Opt. Commun. 71, 23 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Sarayeddine, D. Courjon, M. Spajer, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (to be published).
  10. J. M. Vigoureux, R. Payen, J. Phys. 36, 1327 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. D’Hooge, J. M. Vigoureux, Chem. Phys. Lett. 65, 500 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. D’Hooge, J. M. Vigoureux, C. Menu, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3639 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. K. Carniglia, L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. D 3, 280 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Ph. Grossel, R. Payen, J. M. Vigoureux, Opt. Commun. 20, 189 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Ph. Grossel, J. M. Vigoureux, R. Payen, Can. J. Phys. 55, 259 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B. B. Dasgupta, R. Fuchs, Phys. Rev. B 24, 554 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. J. Rice, W. R. Schneider, S. Strasser, Phys. Rev. B 8, 474 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Girard, F. Hache, Chem. Phys. 118, 249 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. Hache, D. Ricard, C. Girard, Phys. Rev. B 38, 799 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. S. Gale, Am. J. Phys. 40, 1038 (1972).
    [CrossRef]

1989 (2)

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrel, Phys. Rev. B 39, 767 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, M. Spajer, Opt. Commun. 71, 23 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

F. Hache, D. Ricard, C. Girard, Phys. Rev. B 38, 799 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

C. Girard, F. Hache, Chem. Phys. 118, 249 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

E. Betzig, A. Harootunian, A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, Appl. Opt. 26, 1890 (1986).
[CrossRef]

U. Durig, D. Pohl, F. Rohner, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

U. Fischer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B3, 386 (1985).

1984 (2)

D. Pohl, N. Denk, M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Massey, Appl. Opt. 23, 658 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

B. B. Dasgupta, R. Fuchs, Phys. Rev. B 24, 554 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

L. D’Hooge, J. M. Vigoureux, C. Menu, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3639 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

L. D’Hooge, J. M. Vigoureux, Chem. Phys. Lett. 65, 500 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

Ph. Grossel, R. Payen, J. M. Vigoureux, Opt. Commun. 20, 189 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Grossel, J. M. Vigoureux, R. Payen, Can. J. Phys. 55, 259 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

J. M. Vigoureux, R. Payen, J. Phys. 36, 1327 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

M. J. Rice, W. R. Schneider, S. Strasser, Phys. Rev. B 8, 474 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

D. S. Gale, Am. J. Phys. 40, 1038 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

C. K. Carniglia, L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. D 3, 280 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, A. Harootunian, A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, Appl. Opt. 26, 1890 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Carniglia, C. K.

C. K. Carniglia, L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. D 3, 280 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Courjon, D.

D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, M. Spajer, Opt. Commun. 71, 23 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Sarayeddine, D. Courjon, M. Spajer, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (to be published).

D’Hooge, L.

L. D’Hooge, J. M. Vigoureux, C. Menu, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3639 (1981).
[CrossRef]

L. D’Hooge, J. M. Vigoureux, Chem. Phys. Lett. 65, 500 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Dasgupta, B. B.

B. B. Dasgupta, R. Fuchs, Phys. Rev. B 24, 554 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Denk, N.

D. Pohl, N. Denk, M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Durig, U.

U. Durig, D. Pohl, F. Rohner, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ferrel, T. L.

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrel, Phys. Rev. B 39, 767 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, U.

U. Fischer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B3, 386 (1985).

Fuchs, R.

B. B. Dasgupta, R. Fuchs, Phys. Rev. B 24, 554 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gale, D. S.

D. S. Gale, Am. J. Phys. 40, 1038 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Girard, C.

F. Hache, D. Ricard, C. Girard, Phys. Rev. B 38, 799 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard, F. Hache, Chem. Phys. 118, 249 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Grossel, Ph.

Ph. Grossel, J. M. Vigoureux, R. Payen, Can. J. Phys. 55, 259 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Grossel, R. Payen, J. M. Vigoureux, Opt. Commun. 20, 189 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Guerra, J. M.

J. M. Guerra, presented at the International Congress on Optical Science and Engineering, Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany, 1988.

Hache, F.

F. Hache, D. Ricard, C. Girard, Phys. Rev. B 38, 799 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard, F. Hache, Chem. Phys. 118, 249 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Harootunian, A.

E. Betzig, A. Harootunian, A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, Appl. Opt. 26, 1890 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Isaacson, M.

E. Betzig, A. Harootunian, A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, Appl. Opt. 26, 1890 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lanz, M.

D. Pohl, N. Denk, M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, A.

E. Betzig, A. Harootunian, A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, Appl. Opt. 26, 1890 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mandel, L.

C. K. Carniglia, L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. D 3, 280 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Massey, G. A.

Menu, C.

L. D’Hooge, J. M. Vigoureux, C. Menu, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3639 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Payen, R.

Ph. Grossel, R. Payen, J. M. Vigoureux, Opt. Commun. 20, 189 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Grossel, J. M. Vigoureux, R. Payen, Can. J. Phys. 55, 259 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Vigoureux, R. Payen, J. Phys. 36, 1327 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D.

U. Durig, D. Pohl, F. Rohner, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. Pohl, N. Denk, M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Reddick, R. C.

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrel, Phys. Rev. B 39, 767 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ricard, D.

F. Hache, D. Ricard, C. Girard, Phys. Rev. B 38, 799 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rice, M. J.

M. J. Rice, W. R. Schneider, S. Strasser, Phys. Rev. B 8, 474 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rohner, F.

U. Durig, D. Pohl, F. Rohner, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sarayeddine, K.

D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, M. Spajer, Opt. Commun. 71, 23 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Sarayeddine, D. Courjon, M. Spajer, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (to be published).

Schneider, W. R.

M. J. Rice, W. R. Schneider, S. Strasser, Phys. Rev. B 8, 474 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Spajer, M.

D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, M. Spajer, Opt. Commun. 71, 23 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Sarayeddine, D. Courjon, M. Spajer, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (to be published).

Strasser, S.

M. J. Rice, W. R. Schneider, S. Strasser, Phys. Rev. B 8, 474 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Vigoureux, J. M.

L. D’Hooge, J. M. Vigoureux, C. Menu, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3639 (1981).
[CrossRef]

L. D’Hooge, J. M. Vigoureux, Chem. Phys. Lett. 65, 500 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Grossel, R. Payen, J. M. Vigoureux, Opt. Commun. 20, 189 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Grossel, J. M. Vigoureux, R. Payen, Can. J. Phys. 55, 259 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Vigoureux, R. Payen, J. Phys. 36, 1327 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Warmack, R. J.

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrel, Phys. Rev. B 39, 767 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

D. S. Gale, Am. J. Phys. 40, 1038 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

G. A. Massey, Appl. Opt. 23, 658 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, A. Harootunian, A. Lewis, M. Isaacson, Appl. Opt. 26, 1890 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Pohl, N. Denk, M. Lanz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

Ph. Grossel, J. M. Vigoureux, R. Payen, Can. J. Phys. 55, 259 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

C. Girard, F. Hache, Chem. Phys. 118, 249 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. D’Hooge, J. M. Vigoureux, Chem. Phys. Lett. 65, 500 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

U. Durig, D. Pohl, F. Rohner, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3318 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

L. D’Hooge, J. M. Vigoureux, C. Menu, J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3639 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. (1)

J. M. Vigoureux, R. Payen, J. Phys. 36, 1327 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

U. Fischer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B3, 386 (1985).

Opt. Commun. (2)

D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, M. Spajer, Opt. Commun. 71, 23 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Grossel, R. Payen, J. M. Vigoureux, Opt. Commun. 20, 189 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

F. Hache, D. Ricard, C. Girard, Phys. Rev. B 38, 799 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Dasgupta, R. Fuchs, Phys. Rev. B 24, 554 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Rice, W. R. Schneider, S. Strasser, Phys. Rev. B 8, 474 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, T. L. Ferrel, Phys. Rev. B 39, 767 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. D (1)

C. K. Carniglia, L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. D 3, 280 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

K. Sarayeddine, D. Courjon, M. Spajer, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (to be published).

J. M. Guerra, presented at the International Congress on Optical Science and Engineering, Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany, 1988.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

In the scanning tunneling optical microscope, evanescent information is collected by using a scattering probe of subwavelength size. There are two different ways to light the surface: (a) the surface is lit by an evanescent wave created by total internal reflection, (b) the surface is directly lit by a propagating wave.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

In experiments described in Ref. 8 the detector is a conical stylus. Since only the tip interacts with the evanescent field, it can be approximated by a sphere.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Feynman resonant diagrams for surface scattering. There are four different processes. In (a) an evanescent wave (dashed line) is scattered into a homogeneous propagating wave (wavy line). This mechanism is a prototype process to transform evanescent surface waves into homogeneous ones and then to collect information in scanning tunneling. (b)–(d) show other processes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Detection of the evanescent field by means of a stylus placed close to the object surface. The detected signal during the scanning of the object along the y axis is shown in Refs. 8 and 9.

Equations (10)

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( K , 2 ) = ( K , 1 ) K ) / K K .
E ev ( r , K ev , s ) = T ( K ev , S ) ev ( K ev , s ) exp ( i K ev r ) ,
E scatt ( r , K s , s ) = S ( K s , s ) s ( K s , s ) exp ( i K s r ) .
d I d Ω = A | E scatt ( r , K s , s ) α E ev ( r , K ev , s ) | 2 ,
α i j ( ω ) = a 3 [ 1 a F ( a , ω ) 1 + 2 a F ( a , ω ) ] δ i j ,
F ( r , ω ) = 2 a k , k [ j 1 ( k a ) j 1 ( k r ) / C k k ] M 1 ( k , k , ω ) .
M ( k , k , ω ) = δ k , k 4 π χ s ( k , k , ω ) .
d I d Ω = A a 6 [ 1 a F ( a , ω ) 1 + 2 a F ( a , ω ) ] | S | 2 | T | 2 | s ev | 2 × exp ( 2 K ˜ ev d ) ,
M ( k , k , ω ) = δ k , k k 2 ( ω ) ,
d I d Ω = A a 6 [ ( ω ) 1 ( ω ) + 2 ] | S | 2 | T | 2 | s ev | 2 exp ( 2 K ˜ ev d ) .

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