Abstract

Experimental results that demonstrate the formation of photorefractive gratings in KTN:Cu,V in the paraelectric phase are presented. These gratings are formed using the quadratic electro-optic effect, which allows amplitude modulation of the diffracted beam by an external electric field. High diffraction efficiencies of over 50% in a 3-mm-thick sample and amplitude modulation of the diffracted beam by an external field at frequencies of up to 20 kHz were observed.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Gabor, IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 156 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. J. Van Heerden, Appl. Opt. 2, 393 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Von der Linde, A. M. Glass, Appl. Phys. 8, 85 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Psaltis, J. Yu, X. G. Gu, H. Lee, in Digest of Conference on Optical Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), p. 129.
  5. F. S. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 3418 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Vor der Linde, A. M. Glass, K. F. Rodgers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 22 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. A. Boatner, E. Kratzig, R. Orlowski, Ferroelecrics 27, 247 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Orlowski, L. A. Boatner, E. Kratzig, Opt. Commun. 35, 45 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. M. Perry, R. R. Hayes, N. E. Tornberg, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Light Scattering in Solids, M. Balkanski, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975), p. 812.
  10. J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. Van Uitert, S. H. Wemple, Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 141 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Agranat, K. Sayano, A. Yariv, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Photorefractive Materials, Effects and Devices (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), paper PD1.
  12. F. Micheron, C. Mayeux, J. C. Trotier, Appl. Opt. 13, 794 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. B. Thaxter, M. Kestigian, Appl. Opt. 13, 913 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. K. Sinha, J. Sci. Instrum. 42, 696 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Micheron, G. Bismuth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 71 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Burns, F. H. Dacol, Solid State Commun. 48, 853 (1983).
    [CrossRef]

1983 (1)

G. Burns, F. H. Dacol, Solid State Commun. 48, 853 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

L. A. Boatner, E. Kratzig, R. Orlowski, Ferroelecrics 27, 247 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. Orlowski, L. A. Boatner, E. Kratzig, Opt. Commun. 35, 45 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

D. Von der Linde, A. M. Glass, Appl. Phys. 8, 85 (1975).
[CrossRef]

D. Vor der Linde, A. M. Glass, K. F. Rodgers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 22 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

F. Micheron, C. Mayeux, J. C. Trotier, Appl. Opt. 13, 794 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Thaxter, M. Kestigian, Appl. Opt. 13, 913 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

F. Micheron, G. Bismuth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 71 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

D. Gabor, IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 156 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

F. S. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 3418 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

J. K. Sinha, J. Sci. Instrum. 42, 696 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. Van Uitert, S. H. Wemple, Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 141 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

Agranat, A.

A. Agranat, K. Sayano, A. Yariv, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Photorefractive Materials, Effects and Devices (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), paper PD1.

Bismuth, G.

F. Micheron, G. Bismuth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 71 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Boatner, L. A.

L. A. Boatner, E. Kratzig, R. Orlowski, Ferroelecrics 27, 247 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. Orlowski, L. A. Boatner, E. Kratzig, Opt. Commun. 35, 45 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Burns, G.

G. Burns, F. H. Dacol, Solid State Commun. 48, 853 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F. S.

F. S. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 3418 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Dacol, F. H.

G. Burns, F. H. Dacol, Solid State Commun. 48, 853 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 156 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Geusic, J. E.

J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. Van Uitert, S. H. Wemple, Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 141 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Glass, A. M.

D. Vor der Linde, A. M. Glass, K. F. Rodgers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 22 (1975).
[CrossRef]

D. Von der Linde, A. M. Glass, Appl. Phys. 8, 85 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X. G.

D. Psaltis, J. Yu, X. G. Gu, H. Lee, in Digest of Conference on Optical Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), p. 129.

Hayes, R. R.

C. M. Perry, R. R. Hayes, N. E. Tornberg, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Light Scattering in Solids, M. Balkanski, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975), p. 812.

Kestigian, M.

Kratzig, E.

R. Orlowski, L. A. Boatner, E. Kratzig, Opt. Commun. 35, 45 (1980).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Boatner, E. Kratzig, R. Orlowski, Ferroelecrics 27, 247 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kurtz, S. K.

J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. Van Uitert, S. H. Wemple, Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 141 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

D. Psaltis, J. Yu, X. G. Gu, H. Lee, in Digest of Conference on Optical Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), p. 129.

Mayeux, C.

F. Micheron, C. Mayeux, J. C. Trotier, Appl. Opt. 13, 794 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Micheron, F.

F. Micheron, C. Mayeux, J. C. Trotier, Appl. Opt. 13, 794 (1974).
[CrossRef]

F. Micheron, G. Bismuth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 71 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Orlowski, R.

L. A. Boatner, E. Kratzig, R. Orlowski, Ferroelecrics 27, 247 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. Orlowski, L. A. Boatner, E. Kratzig, Opt. Commun. 35, 45 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Perry, C. M.

C. M. Perry, R. R. Hayes, N. E. Tornberg, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Light Scattering in Solids, M. Balkanski, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975), p. 812.

Psaltis, D.

D. Psaltis, J. Yu, X. G. Gu, H. Lee, in Digest of Conference on Optical Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), p. 129.

Rodgers, K. F.

D. Vor der Linde, A. M. Glass, K. F. Rodgers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 22 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Sayano, K.

A. Agranat, K. Sayano, A. Yariv, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Photorefractive Materials, Effects and Devices (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), paper PD1.

Sinha, J. K.

J. K. Sinha, J. Sci. Instrum. 42, 696 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Thaxter, J. B.

Tornberg, N. E.

C. M. Perry, R. R. Hayes, N. E. Tornberg, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Light Scattering in Solids, M. Balkanski, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975), p. 812.

Trotier, J. C.

F. Micheron, C. Mayeux, J. C. Trotier, Appl. Opt. 13, 794 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Van Heerden, P. J.

Van Uitert, L.

J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. Van Uitert, S. H. Wemple, Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 141 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Von der Linde, D.

D. Von der Linde, A. M. Glass, Appl. Phys. 8, 85 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Vor der Linde, D.

D. Vor der Linde, A. M. Glass, K. F. Rodgers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 22 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Wemple, S. H.

J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. Van Uitert, S. H. Wemple, Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 141 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Agranat, K. Sayano, A. Yariv, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Photorefractive Materials, Effects and Devices (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), paper PD1.

Yu, J.

D. Psaltis, J. Yu, X. G. Gu, H. Lee, in Digest of Conference on Optical Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), p. 129.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Von der Linde, A. M. Glass, Appl. Phys. 8, 85 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. E. Geusic, S. K. Kurtz, L. Van Uitert, S. H. Wemple, Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 141 (1964).
[CrossRef]

D. Vor der Linde, A. M. Glass, K. F. Rodgers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 22 (1975).
[CrossRef]

F. Micheron, G. Bismuth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 71 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelecrics (1)

L. A. Boatner, E. Kratzig, R. Orlowski, Ferroelecrics 27, 247 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IBM J. Res. Dev. (1)

D. Gabor, IBM J. Res. Dev. 13, 156 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. S. Chen, J. Appl. Phys. 38, 3418 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. K. Sinha, J. Sci. Instrum. 42, 696 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Orlowski, L. A. Boatner, E. Kratzig, Opt. Commun. 35, 45 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

G. Burns, F. H. Dacol, Solid State Commun. 48, 853 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

C. M. Perry, R. R. Hayes, N. E. Tornberg, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Light Scattering in Solids, M. Balkanski, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975), p. 812.

A. Agranat, K. Sayano, A. Yariv, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Photorefractive Materials, Effects and Devices (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), paper PD1.

D. Psaltis, J. Yu, X. G. Gu, H. Lee, in Digest of Conference on Optical Computing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), p. 129.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectrum of the KTN:Cu,V crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temperature dependence of the low-frequency dielectric constant. The curve through the data points is drawn as a guide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimental setup for diffraction measurements. LSI, Ar+ laser with λ = 514.5 nm; LS2, He–Ne laser with λ = 612.8 nm; L1, L2, beam-expander lenses; BS1, beam splitter; M1, M2, mirrors; CR, cryostat; C, crystal; TS, temperature sensor; D, detector, (b) The sample position relative to the writing beams.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffraction efficiency of the He–Ne beam as a function of the applied voltage.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Amplitude modulation of the diffracted beam. The modulating field is 50 V/cm rms, and the dc bias field is 400 V/cm.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ n = 1 2 n 0 2 g P 2 ,
P = 0 ( 1 ) E .
δ ( Δ n ) = Δ n ( E sc + E 0 ) Δ n ( E 0 ) = 1 2 n 0 2 g 0 2 ( 1 ) 2 ( 2 E 0 E sc + E sc 2 ) ,
δ ( Δ n ) = n 0 2 g 0 2 ( 1 ) 2 E sc E 0 .
E = aP + b P 3 ,
P ( x ) = P 0 + d P d E | E = E 0 E sc ( x ) ,
δ P 2 ( x ) = 2 P 0 + d P d E | E 0 = E E sc .
δ ( Δ η ) = ηg P 0 ( a + 3 b P 0 2 ) E sc ( x ) ,

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