Abstract

A novel fiber-optic humidity sensor is described. It is based on reversible sorption of water from the ambient atmosphere in a porous thin-film interferometer that sits on the tip of a fiber. The sorbed water changes the refractive index of the thin films and thus the reflectivity of the interferometer; the resulting modulation of the reflected intensity is detected. The sensor is insensitive to electromagnetic interference and aggressive chemicals and is extremely small (micrometers).

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. For recent studies of thin-film growth see, e.g., J. R. Banavar, M. Kohmoto, J. Roberts, Phys. Rev. A 33, 2065 (1986); A. Mazor, D. J. Srolowitz, P. S. Hagan, B. G. Bukiet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 24 (1988); R. P. U. Karunasiri, R. Bruinsma, J. Rudnick, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 788 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Schild, A. Steudel, H. Walther, J. Phys. (Paris) 28, C2-276 (1967); S. F. Pellicori, H. L. Hettich, Appl. Opt. 27, 3061 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Wexler, ed., Humidity and Moisture (Reinhold, New York, 1965), Vol. 1.
  4. P. E. Thoma, J. O. Colla, R. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Components Hybrids Manuf. Technol. CHMT-2,321 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. R. Shahriari, G. H. Sigel, Q. Zhou, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 373.
  6. F. Kohlrausch, Praktische Physik, 23rd ed. (Teubner, Stuttgart, 1985), Vol. 1, pp. 397–406.
  7. K. Tiefenthaler, W. Lukosz, Opt. Lett. 9, 137 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Enokihara, M. Izutsu, T. Sueta, Appl. Opt. 27, 109 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. Mitschke, G. Ankerhold, W. Lange, Appl. Phys. B 48, 467 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Testotherm Model Hygrotest 6300, 7825 Lenzkirch, Federal Republic of Germany.

1989 (1)

F. Mitschke, G. Ankerhold, W. Lange, Appl. Phys. B 48, 467 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

For recent studies of thin-film growth see, e.g., J. R. Banavar, M. Kohmoto, J. Roberts, Phys. Rev. A 33, 2065 (1986); A. Mazor, D. J. Srolowitz, P. S. Hagan, B. G. Bukiet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 24 (1988); R. P. U. Karunasiri, R. Bruinsma, J. Rudnick, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 788 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

1979 (1)

P. E. Thoma, J. O. Colla, R. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Components Hybrids Manuf. Technol. CHMT-2,321 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

J. Schild, A. Steudel, H. Walther, J. Phys. (Paris) 28, C2-276 (1967); S. F. Pellicori, H. L. Hettich, Appl. Opt. 27, 3061 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ankerhold, G.

F. Mitschke, G. Ankerhold, W. Lange, Appl. Phys. B 48, 467 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Banavar, J. R.

For recent studies of thin-film growth see, e.g., J. R. Banavar, M. Kohmoto, J. Roberts, Phys. Rev. A 33, 2065 (1986); A. Mazor, D. J. Srolowitz, P. S. Hagan, B. G. Bukiet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 24 (1988); R. P. U. Karunasiri, R. Bruinsma, J. Rudnick, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 788 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colla, J. O.

P. E. Thoma, J. O. Colla, R. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Components Hybrids Manuf. Technol. CHMT-2,321 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Enokihara, A.

Izutsu, M.

Kohlrausch, F.

F. Kohlrausch, Praktische Physik, 23rd ed. (Teubner, Stuttgart, 1985), Vol. 1, pp. 397–406.

Kohmoto, M.

For recent studies of thin-film growth see, e.g., J. R. Banavar, M. Kohmoto, J. Roberts, Phys. Rev. A 33, 2065 (1986); A. Mazor, D. J. Srolowitz, P. S. Hagan, B. G. Bukiet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 24 (1988); R. P. U. Karunasiri, R. Bruinsma, J. Rudnick, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 788 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lange, W.

F. Mitschke, G. Ankerhold, W. Lange, Appl. Phys. B 48, 467 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lukosz, W.

Mitschke, F.

F. Mitschke, G. Ankerhold, W. Lange, Appl. Phys. B 48, 467 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, J.

For recent studies of thin-film growth see, e.g., J. R. Banavar, M. Kohmoto, J. Roberts, Phys. Rev. A 33, 2065 (1986); A. Mazor, D. J. Srolowitz, P. S. Hagan, B. G. Bukiet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 24 (1988); R. P. U. Karunasiri, R. Bruinsma, J. Rudnick, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 788 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schild, J.

J. Schild, A. Steudel, H. Walther, J. Phys. (Paris) 28, C2-276 (1967); S. F. Pellicori, H. L. Hettich, Appl. Opt. 27, 3061 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shahriari, M. R.

M. R. Shahriari, G. H. Sigel, Q. Zhou, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 373.

Sigel, G. H.

M. R. Shahriari, G. H. Sigel, Q. Zhou, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 373.

Steudel, A.

J. Schild, A. Steudel, H. Walther, J. Phys. (Paris) 28, C2-276 (1967); S. F. Pellicori, H. L. Hettich, Appl. Opt. 27, 3061 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, R.

P. E. Thoma, J. O. Colla, R. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Components Hybrids Manuf. Technol. CHMT-2,321 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sueta, T.

Thoma, P. E.

P. E. Thoma, J. O. Colla, R. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Components Hybrids Manuf. Technol. CHMT-2,321 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Tiefenthaler, K.

Walther, H.

J. Schild, A. Steudel, H. Walther, J. Phys. (Paris) 28, C2-276 (1967); S. F. Pellicori, H. L. Hettich, Appl. Opt. 27, 3061 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Q.

M. R. Shahriari, G. H. Sigel, Q. Zhou, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 373.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

F. Mitschke, G. Ankerhold, W. Lange, Appl. Phys. B 48, 467 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Components Hybrids Manuf. Technol. (1)

P. E. Thoma, J. O. Colla, R. Stewart, IEEE Trans. Components Hybrids Manuf. Technol. CHMT-2,321 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. (Paris) (1)

J. Schild, A. Steudel, H. Walther, J. Phys. (Paris) 28, C2-276 (1967); S. F. Pellicori, H. L. Hettich, Appl. Opt. 27, 3061 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

For recent studies of thin-film growth see, e.g., J. R. Banavar, M. Kohmoto, J. Roberts, Phys. Rev. A 33, 2065 (1986); A. Mazor, D. J. Srolowitz, P. S. Hagan, B. G. Bukiet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 24 (1988); R. P. U. Karunasiri, R. Bruinsma, J. Rudnick, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 788 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

Testotherm Model Hygrotest 6300, 7825 Lenzkirch, Federal Republic of Germany.

A. Wexler, ed., Humidity and Moisture (Reinhold, New York, 1965), Vol. 1.

M. R. Shahriari, G. H. Sigel, Q. Zhou, in Digest of Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 373.

F. Kohlrausch, Praktische Physik, 23rd ed. (Teubner, Stuttgart, 1985), Vol. 1, pp. 397–406.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross section of a thin-film Fabry–Perot resonator (not to scale). The overall thickness of the stack of films is approximately 2 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the setup for the humidity measurement. L’s, Lenses; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; λ/4, quarter-wave plate; ref, reference voltage for zero-point calibration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Steady-state response of the fiber-optic sensor measured with the setup of Fig. 2 and using a commercial hygrometer as the reference.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transient response of the sensor. The relative humidity of the gas blown into the test chamber is switched between 85% and 11%.

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