Abstract

Transient gain saturation and recovery with 110–340-μsec time constants were observed in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers. This slow response reduces the effects of saturation-induced cross talk and intermodulation distortion associated with multichannel signal amplification. In a two-channel amplification experiment, negligible saturation-induced cross talk was measured at signal modulation frequencies >5 kHz. Increased suppression of saturation-induced cross talk was achieved through feed-forward compensation to reduce low-frequency gain fluctuations.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. A. Olsson, M. G. Oberg, L. A. Koszi, G. Przybylek, Electron. Lett. 24, 36 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. G. Oberg, N. A. Olsson, L. A. Koszi, G. Przybylek, Electron. Lett. 24, 38 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Yamamoto, H. Tsuchiya, Electron. Lett. 16, 233 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. J. O’Mahony, I. W. Marshall, H. J. Westlake, W. G. Stallard, Electron. Lett. 22, 1238 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 1026 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, Opt. Lett. 12, 888 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. R. Talman, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 473.
  8. E. Desurvire, C. R. Giles, J. R. Simpson, “Gain saturation effects in high-speed, multichannel erbium-doped fiber amplifiers at λ = 1.53 μm,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).
  9. T. Mukai, K. Inoue, T. Saitoh, Electron. Lett. 23, 396 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Grosskopf, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, Electron. Lett. 22, 900 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. P. Agrawal, Electron. Lett. 23, 1175 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Inoue, T. Mukai, T. Saitoh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1051 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. M. Jopson, T. E. Darcie, K. T. Gayliard, R. T. Ku, R. E. Tench, T. C. Rice, N. A. Olsson, Electron. Lett. 23, 1394 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Reisfeld, C. K. Jorgensen, Lasers and Excited States of Rare Earths (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. I. Laming, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, P. L. Scrivener, F. Fontana, A. Righetti, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1988), Vol. 2, p. 25.
  16. E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 835 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. J. F. Digonnet, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1631 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. M. Frantz, J. S. Nodvik, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2346 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, M. J. Weber, 16, 10 (1977).
  20. T. E. Darcie, R. M. Jopson, A. A. M. Saleh, Electron. Lett. 24, 1154 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

1989 (1)

E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 835 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

T. E. Darcie, R. M. Jopson, A. A. M. Saleh, Electron. Lett. 24, 1154 (1988).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Olsson, M. G. Oberg, L. A. Koszi, G. Przybylek, Electron. Lett. 24, 36 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Oberg, N. A. Olsson, L. A. Koszi, G. Przybylek, Electron. Lett. 24, 38 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (6)

G. P. Agrawal, Electron. Lett. 23, 1175 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, T. Mukai, T. Saitoh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1051 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Jopson, T. E. Darcie, K. T. Gayliard, R. T. Ku, R. E. Tench, T. C. Rice, N. A. Olsson, Electron. Lett. 23, 1394 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 1026 (1987).
[CrossRef]

E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, Opt. Lett. 12, 888 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mukai, K. Inoue, T. Saitoh, Electron. Lett. 23, 396 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (3)

G. Grosskopf, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, Electron. Lett. 22, 900 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. J. F. Digonnet, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1631 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. J. O’Mahony, I. W. Marshall, H. J. Westlake, W. G. Stallard, Electron. Lett. 22, 1238 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

Y. Yamamoto, H. Tsuchiya, Electron. Lett. 16, 233 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, M. J. Weber, 16, 10 (1977).

1963 (1)

L. M. Frantz, J. S. Nodvik, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2346 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Electron. Lett. 23, 1175 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Becker, P. C.

E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, Opt. Lett. 12, 888 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. R. Talman, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 473.

Darcie, T. E.

T. E. Darcie, R. M. Jopson, A. A. M. Saleh, Electron. Lett. 24, 1154 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Jopson, T. E. Darcie, K. T. Gayliard, R. T. Ku, R. E. Tench, T. C. Rice, N. A. Olsson, Electron. Lett. 23, 1394 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Desurvire, E.

E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 835 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, Opt. Lett. 12, 888 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. R. Talman, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 473.

E. Desurvire, C. R. Giles, J. R. Simpson, “Gain saturation effects in high-speed, multichannel erbium-doped fiber amplifiers at λ = 1.53 μm,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Digonnet, M. J. F.

M. J. F. Digonnet, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1631 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fontana, F.

R. I. Laming, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, P. L. Scrivener, F. Fontana, A. Righetti, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1988), Vol. 2, p. 25.

Frantz, L. M.

L. M. Frantz, J. S. Nodvik, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2346 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Gayliard, K. T.

R. M. Jopson, T. E. Darcie, K. T. Gayliard, R. T. Ku, R. E. Tench, T. C. Rice, N. A. Olsson, Electron. Lett. 23, 1394 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Giles, C. R.

E. Desurvire, C. R. Giles, J. R. Simpson, “Gain saturation effects in high-speed, multichannel erbium-doped fiber amplifiers at λ = 1.53 μm,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. R. Talman, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 473.

Grosskopf, G.

G. Grosskopf, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, Electron. Lett. 22, 900 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

T. Mukai, K. Inoue, T. Saitoh, Electron. Lett. 23, 396 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, T. Mukai, T. Saitoh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1051 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jauncey, I. M.

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 1026 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jopson, R. M.

T. E. Darcie, R. M. Jopson, A. A. M. Saleh, Electron. Lett. 24, 1154 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Jopson, T. E. Darcie, K. T. Gayliard, R. T. Ku, R. E. Tench, T. C. Rice, N. A. Olsson, Electron. Lett. 23, 1394 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jorgensen, C. K.

P. Reisfeld, C. K. Jorgensen, Lasers and Excited States of Rare Earths (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977).
[CrossRef]

Koszi, L. A.

N. A. Olsson, M. G. Oberg, L. A. Koszi, G. Przybylek, Electron. Lett. 24, 36 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Oberg, N. A. Olsson, L. A. Koszi, G. Przybylek, Electron. Lett. 24, 38 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ku, R. T.

R. M. Jopson, T. E. Darcie, K. T. Gayliard, R. T. Ku, R. E. Tench, T. C. Rice, N. A. Olsson, Electron. Lett. 23, 1394 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Laming, R. I.

R. I. Laming, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, P. L. Scrivener, F. Fontana, A. Righetti, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1988), Vol. 2, p. 25.

Layne, C. B.

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, M. J. Weber, 16, 10 (1977).

Lowdermilk, W. H.

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, M. J. Weber, 16, 10 (1977).

Ludwig, R.

G. Grosskopf, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, Electron. Lett. 22, 900 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, I. W.

M. J. O’Mahony, I. W. Marshall, H. J. Westlake, W. G. Stallard, Electron. Lett. 22, 1238 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mears, R. J.

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 1026 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

T. Mukai, K. Inoue, T. Saitoh, Electron. Lett. 23, 396 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Inoue, T. Mukai, T. Saitoh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1051 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nodvik, J. S.

L. M. Frantz, J. S. Nodvik, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2346 (1963).
[CrossRef]

O’Mahony, M. J.

M. J. O’Mahony, I. W. Marshall, H. J. Westlake, W. G. Stallard, Electron. Lett. 22, 1238 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Oberg, M. G.

M. G. Oberg, N. A. Olsson, L. A. Koszi, G. Przybylek, Electron. Lett. 24, 38 (1988).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Olsson, M. G. Oberg, L. A. Koszi, G. Przybylek, Electron. Lett. 24, 36 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, N. A.

N. A. Olsson, M. G. Oberg, L. A. Koszi, G. Przybylek, Electron. Lett. 24, 36 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Oberg, N. A. Olsson, L. A. Koszi, G. Przybylek, Electron. Lett. 24, 38 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Jopson, T. E. Darcie, K. T. Gayliard, R. T. Ku, R. E. Tench, T. C. Rice, N. A. Olsson, Electron. Lett. 23, 1394 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 1026 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. I. Laming, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, P. L. Scrivener, F. Fontana, A. Righetti, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1988), Vol. 2, p. 25.

Przybylek, G.

M. G. Oberg, N. A. Olsson, L. A. Koszi, G. Przybylek, Electron. Lett. 24, 38 (1988).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Olsson, M. G. Oberg, L. A. Koszi, G. Przybylek, Electron. Lett. 24, 36 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 1026 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. I. Laming, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, P. L. Scrivener, F. Fontana, A. Righetti, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1988), Vol. 2, p. 25.

Reisfeld, P.

P. Reisfeld, C. K. Jorgensen, Lasers and Excited States of Rare Earths (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977).
[CrossRef]

Rice, T. C.

R. M. Jopson, T. E. Darcie, K. T. Gayliard, R. T. Ku, R. E. Tench, T. C. Rice, N. A. Olsson, Electron. Lett. 23, 1394 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Righetti, A.

R. I. Laming, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, P. L. Scrivener, F. Fontana, A. Righetti, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1988), Vol. 2, p. 25.

Saitoh, T.

K. Inoue, T. Mukai, T. Saitoh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1051 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Mukai, K. Inoue, T. Saitoh, Electron. Lett. 23, 396 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, A. A. M.

T. E. Darcie, R. M. Jopson, A. A. M. Saleh, Electron. Lett. 24, 1154 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Scrivener, P. L.

R. I. Laming, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, P. L. Scrivener, F. Fontana, A. Righetti, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1988), Vol. 2, p. 25.

Simpson, J. R.

E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 835 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, Opt. Lett. 12, 888 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. R. Talman, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 473.

E. Desurvire, C. R. Giles, J. R. Simpson, “Gain saturation effects in high-speed, multichannel erbium-doped fiber amplifiers at λ = 1.53 μm,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Stallard, W. G.

M. J. O’Mahony, I. W. Marshall, H. J. Westlake, W. G. Stallard, Electron. Lett. 22, 1238 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Talman, J. R.

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. R. Talman, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 473.

Tench, R. E.

R. M. Jopson, T. E. Darcie, K. T. Gayliard, R. T. Ku, R. E. Tench, T. C. Rice, N. A. Olsson, Electron. Lett. 23, 1394 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, H.

Y. Yamamoto, H. Tsuchiya, Electron. Lett. 16, 233 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. G.

G. Grosskopf, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, Electron. Lett. 22, 900 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, M. J. Weber, 16, 10 (1977).

Westlake, H. J.

M. J. O’Mahony, I. W. Marshall, H. J. Westlake, W. G. Stallard, Electron. Lett. 22, 1238 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

Y. Yamamoto, H. Tsuchiya, Electron. Lett. 16, 233 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Inoue, T. Mukai, T. Saitoh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1051 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (10)

R. M. Jopson, T. E. Darcie, K. T. Gayliard, R. T. Ku, R. E. Tench, T. C. Rice, N. A. Olsson, Electron. Lett. 23, 1394 (1987).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Olsson, M. G. Oberg, L. A. Koszi, G. Przybylek, Electron. Lett. 24, 36 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Oberg, N. A. Olsson, L. A. Koszi, G. Przybylek, Electron. Lett. 24, 38 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamamoto, H. Tsuchiya, Electron. Lett. 16, 233 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. J. O’Mahony, I. W. Marshall, H. J. Westlake, W. G. Stallard, Electron. Lett. 22, 1238 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, Electron. Lett. 23, 1026 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Mukai, K. Inoue, T. Saitoh, Electron. Lett. 23, 396 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. Grosskopf, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, Electron. Lett. 22, 900 (1986).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Agrawal, Electron. Lett. 23, 1175 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Darcie, R. M. Jopson, A. A. M. Saleh, Electron. Lett. 24, 1154 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-7, 835 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. J. F. Digonnet, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1631 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. M. Frantz, J. S. Nodvik, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2346 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (5)

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, J. R. Talman, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 473.

E. Desurvire, C. R. Giles, J. R. Simpson, “Gain saturation effects in high-speed, multichannel erbium-doped fiber amplifiers at λ = 1.53 μm,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

C. B. Layne, W. H. Lowdermilk, M. J. Weber, 16, 10 (1977).

P. Reisfeld, C. K. Jorgensen, Lasers and Excited States of Rare Earths (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977).
[CrossRef]

R. I. Laming, L. Reekie, D. N. Payne, P. L. Scrivener, F. Fontana, A. Righetti, in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 1988), Vol. 2, p. 25.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for studying one- and two-channel signal amplification in an erbium-doped fiber amplifier. SCBR, silicon-chip, Bragg-reflector laser; ECL, external cavity laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time constant (filled circles) and saturated gain (open circles) during transient gain saturation in a fiber amplifier. The pump power Pp = 210 mW, and Ps = 0.76–25.2 μW. The inset shows the amplifier’s pulse response to input signals with peak powers of 3.1,6.3,12.6, and 25.2 μW.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Amplified signals showing the gain saturation and recovery during pulse amplifications. The pump power Pp = 210 mW, the saturating pulse power Ps1 = 34.4 μW at λ = 1531 nm, and the cw pulse signal Ps2 = 3.48 μW at λ = 1537.5 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Gain modulation during sinusoidal signal amplification as a function of the modulation frequency. The solid curve is the response calculated using the parameters in Table 1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup for feed-forward compensation of saturation-induced cross talk in the fiber amplifier. The control loop adjusts the pump power in order to maintain constant gain in the fiber amplifier with varying input signal power. AO MOD’s, acousto-optic modulators.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fiber Amplifier Parameters Used to Calculate the Amplifier Conditions and Frequency Response of the Amplifier to Gain Saturation

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d dt [ N 1 ( z , t ) N 2 ( z , t ) N 3 ( z , t ) ] = [ W 12 R W 21 + A 21 R W 12 W 21 A 21 A 32 R 0 A 32 R ] [ N 1 N 2 N 3 ] ,
P p ( z , t ) / z = ρ σ p Γ p ( N 3 N 1 ) P p ,
P si ( z , t ) / z = ρ Γ s ( σ ei N 2 σ ai N l ) P si , i = 1 , 2 ,
R 1 = π a 2 h ν p / Γ p σ p P p ,
P p P p th = Γ p π a 2 h ν p / σ p τ 21 .

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