Abstract

We report the discovery of temporal and spectral self-shifts of dark optical solitons propagating in single-mode fibers. These shifts become increasingly pronounced as the intensity and the fiber length are increased. We show that our data are in quantitative agreement with numerical solutions to a modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation that includes the Raman contribution to the nonlinear refractive index.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Hasegawa, F. Tappert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 142, 171 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095 (1980); L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, W. J. Tomlinson, Opt. Lett. 8, 289 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. Emplit, J. P. Hamaide, F. Reynaud, C. Froehly, A. Barthelemy, Opt. Commun. 62, 374 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Krokel, N. J. Halas, G. Giuliani, D. Grischkowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 29 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, W. J. Tomlinson, H. A. Haus, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1159 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. J. Tomlinson, R. J. Hawkins, A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. N. Thurston, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 329 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. A. Valdmanis, R. L. Fork, J. P. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 10, 131 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. H. Knox, M. C. Downer, R. L. Fork, C. V. Shank, Opt. Lett. 9, 552 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, J. A. Salehi, Opt. Lett. 13, 300 (1988); A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, E. M. Kirschner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1563 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. M. Mitschke, L. F. Mollenauer, Opt. Lett. 11, 659 (1986); E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel’makh, A. A. Fomicahev, JETP Lett. 41, 294 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. P. Gordon, Opt. Lett. 11, 662 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. Tai, A. Hasegawa, Opt. Lett. 13, 392 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Hodel, H. P. Weber, Opt. Lett. 12, 924 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. W. Hellwarth, A. Owyoung, N. George, Phys. Rev. A 4, 2342 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. J. Blow, N. J. Doran, Phys. Lett. A 107, 55 (1985).
    [CrossRef]

1989 (2)

1988 (3)

D. Krokel, N. J. Halas, G. Giuliani, D. Grischkowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 29 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, J. A. Salehi, Opt. Lett. 13, 300 (1988); A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, E. M. Kirschner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1563 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (3)

K. Tai, A. Hasegawa, Opt. Lett. 13, 392 (1987).
[CrossRef]

W. Hodel, H. P. Weber, Opt. Lett. 12, 924 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Emplit, J. P. Hamaide, F. Reynaud, C. Froehly, A. Barthelemy, Opt. Commun. 62, 374 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

1985 (2)

1984 (1)

1980 (1)

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095 (1980); L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, W. J. Tomlinson, Opt. Lett. 8, 289 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

A. Hasegawa, F. Tappert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 142, 171 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

R. W. Hellwarth, A. Owyoung, N. George, Phys. Rev. A 4, 2342 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Barthelemy, A.

P. Emplit, J. P. Hamaide, F. Reynaud, C. Froehly, A. Barthelemy, Opt. Commun. 62, 374 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Blow, K. J.

K. J. Blow, N. J. Doran, Phys. Lett. A 107, 55 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Doran, N. J.

K. J. Blow, N. J. Doran, Phys. Lett. A 107, 55 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Downer, M. C.

Emplit, P.

P. Emplit, J. P. Hamaide, F. Reynaud, C. Froehly, A. Barthelemy, Opt. Commun. 62, 374 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fork, R. L.

Froehly, C.

P. Emplit, J. P. Hamaide, F. Reynaud, C. Froehly, A. Barthelemy, Opt. Commun. 62, 374 (1987).
[CrossRef]

George, N.

R. W. Hellwarth, A. Owyoung, N. George, Phys. Rev. A 4, 2342 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Giuliani, G.

D. Krokel, N. J. Halas, G. Giuliani, D. Grischkowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 29 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, J. P.

Grischkowsky, D.

D. Krokel, N. J. Halas, G. Giuliani, D. Grischkowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 29 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halas, N. J.

D. Krokel, N. J. Halas, G. Giuliani, D. Grischkowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 29 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamaide, J. P.

P. Emplit, J. P. Hamaide, F. Reynaud, C. Froehly, A. Barthelemy, Opt. Commun. 62, 374 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, A.

K. Tai, A. Hasegawa, Opt. Lett. 13, 392 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Hasegawa, F. Tappert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 142, 171 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

Hawkins, R. J.

W. J. Tomlinson, R. J. Hawkins, A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. N. Thurston, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 329 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hellwarth, R. W.

R. W. Hellwarth, A. Owyoung, N. George, Phys. Rev. A 4, 2342 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Heritage, J. P.

Hodel, W.

Kirschner, E. M.

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knox, W. H.

Krokel, D.

D. Krokel, N. J. Halas, G. Giuliani, D. Grischkowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 29 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leaird, D. E.

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitschke, F. M.

Mollenauer, L. F.

F. M. Mitschke, L. F. Mollenauer, Opt. Lett. 11, 659 (1986); E. M. Dianov, A. Ya. Karasik, P. V. Mamyshev, A. M. Prokhorov, V. N. Serkin, M. F. Stel’makh, A. A. Fomicahev, JETP Lett. 41, 294 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095 (1980); L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, W. J. Tomlinson, Opt. Lett. 8, 289 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Owyoung, A.

R. W. Hellwarth, A. Owyoung, N. George, Phys. Rev. A 4, 2342 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Reynaud, F.

P. Emplit, J. P. Hamaide, F. Reynaud, C. Froehly, A. Barthelemy, Opt. Commun. 62, 374 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Salehi, J. A.

Shank, C. V.

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, W. J. Tomlinson, H. A. Haus, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1159 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095 (1980); L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, W. J. Tomlinson, Opt. Lett. 8, 289 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tai, K.

Tappert, F.

A. Hasegawa, F. Tappert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 142, 171 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Thurston, R. N.

W. J. Tomlinson, R. J. Hawkins, A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. N. Thurston, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 329 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomlinson, W. J.

Valdmanis, J. A.

Weber, H. P.

Weiner, A. M.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Hasegawa, F. Tappert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 142, 171 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Emplit, J. P. Hamaide, F. Reynaud, C. Froehly, A. Barthelemy, Opt. Commun. 62, 374 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

K. J. Blow, N. J. Doran, Phys. Lett. A 107, 55 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

R. W. Hellwarth, A. Owyoung, N. George, Phys. Rev. A 4, 2342 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

D. Krokel, N. J. Halas, G. Giuliani, D. Grischkowsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 29 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Weiner, J. P. Heritage, R. J. Hawkins, R. N. Thurston, E. M. Kirschner, D. E. Leaird, W. J. Tomlinson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2445 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095 (1980); L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, W. J. Tomlinson, Opt. Lett. 8, 289 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Intensity profiles of output dark pulses from a 1.4-m fiber, calculated by using the standard NLSE. The peak input powers are (a) 1.5 W, (b) 150 W, (c) 450 W, and (d) 975 W.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top traces: cross-correlation measurements of output dark pulses. Bottom traces: theoretical cross-correlation profiles, calculated by using a modified NLSE that includes the Raman contribution to the nonlinear index. The input peak powers are (a) 7.5 W, (b) 225 W, (c) 450 W, (d) 750 W, and (e) 975 W. The same horizontal scale is used for all the plots.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top traces: measured power spectra of output dark pulses. Bottom traces: theoretical power spectra, calculated by using the modified NLSE. The peak input powers are (a) 7.5 W, (b) 225 W, (c) 450 W, and (d) 975 W. In (b), (c), and (d) the arrow marks the location of the central hole, which shifts to the blue as the power is increased. The same horizontal scale is used for all the plots.

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E ( t ) = E 0 tanh ( t / T 1 ) exp [ ( t 2 / T 2 2 ) ] ,

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