Abstract

An explanation is presented for the formation of periodic structures on solid surfaces under powerful laser irradiation through an analogy to the Bénard effect.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. J. Ehrlich, Y. Tsao, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 1, 978 (1976); J. Moylan, D. Baum, R. Jones, Appl. Phys. 40, 1 (1986).
  2. I. Ursu, I. N. Mihailescu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Konov, V. N. Tokarev, J. Appl. Phys. 61, 2445 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. I. Emel’yanov, V. N. Seminogov, Nonlinear Regime of Capillary Wave Generation and Surface Ripples Formation Under the Action of the Laser Light (Scientific Research Center for Technological Lasers, USSR Academy of Sciences, Troytsk, USSR, 1986), preprint no. 15.
  4. S. A. Akhmanov, V. I. Emel’yanov, N. I. Koroteev, V. N. Seminogov, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 147, 675 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Bénard, Rev. Gen. Sci. Pures Appl. 11, 1261 (1900).
  7. S. Chandrasekhar, Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability (Oxford U. PressOxford, UK, 1961).
  8. C. Normand, Y. Pomeau, M. G. Velarde, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 581 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. R. A. Pearson, J. Fluid Mech. 4, 489 (1958); D. A. Nield, J. Fluid Mech. 19, 341 (1964); K. H. Winters, T. Plesser, K. A. Cliffe, Physica 29, 387 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. E. Scriven, C. V. Sternling, J. Fluid Mech. 19, 321 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Haken, Advanced Synergetics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983).
  12. D. H. Sattinger, in Order and Fluctuations in Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics (Wiley, New York, 1981), p. 209.
  13. I. Ursu, I. N. Mihailescu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. P. Ageev, V. I. Konov, A. A. Gorbunov, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 3909 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. Ursu, I. N. Mihailescu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Konov, Laser Interaction with Metals (Romanian Academy, Bucharest, 1986) (in Romanian).
  15. C. J. Smithelis, ed., Metal Reference Book (Butterworths, London, 1976).
  16. I. Ursu, I. A. Dorobantu, I. N. Mihailescu, M. Vlad, F. Spineanu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Konov, V. N. Tokarev, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1033, 329 (1989).

1989 (1)

I. Ursu, I. A. Dorobantu, I. N. Mihailescu, M. Vlad, F. Spineanu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Konov, V. N. Tokarev, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1033, 329 (1989).

1987 (1)

I. Ursu, I. N. Mihailescu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Konov, V. N. Tokarev, J. Appl. Phys. 61, 2445 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

S. A. Akhmanov, V. I. Emel’yanov, N. I. Koroteev, V. N. Seminogov, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 147, 675 (1985).
[CrossRef]

I. Ursu, I. N. Mihailescu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. P. Ageev, V. I. Konov, A. A. Gorbunov, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 3909 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

C. Normand, Y. Pomeau, M. G. Velarde, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 581 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

D. J. Ehrlich, Y. Tsao, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 1, 978 (1976); J. Moylan, D. Baum, R. Jones, Appl. Phys. 40, 1 (1986).

1964 (1)

L. E. Scriven, C. V. Sternling, J. Fluid Mech. 19, 321 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

J. R. A. Pearson, J. Fluid Mech. 4, 489 (1958); D. A. Nield, J. Fluid Mech. 19, 341 (1964); K. H. Winters, T. Plesser, K. A. Cliffe, Physica 29, 387 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1900 (1)

H. Bénard, Rev. Gen. Sci. Pures Appl. 11, 1261 (1900).

Ageev, V. P.

I. Ursu, I. N. Mihailescu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. P. Ageev, V. I. Konov, A. A. Gorbunov, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 3909 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Akhmanov, S. A.

S. A. Akhmanov, V. I. Emel’yanov, N. I. Koroteev, V. N. Seminogov, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 147, 675 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bénard, H.

H. Bénard, Rev. Gen. Sci. Pures Appl. 11, 1261 (1900).

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability (Oxford U. PressOxford, UK, 1961).

Dorobantu, I. A.

I. Ursu, I. A. Dorobantu, I. N. Mihailescu, M. Vlad, F. Spineanu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Konov, V. N. Tokarev, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1033, 329 (1989).

Ehrlich, D. J.

D. J. Ehrlich, Y. Tsao, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 1, 978 (1976); J. Moylan, D. Baum, R. Jones, Appl. Phys. 40, 1 (1986).

Emel’yanov, V. I.

S. A. Akhmanov, V. I. Emel’yanov, N. I. Koroteev, V. N. Seminogov, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 147, 675 (1985).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Emel’yanov, V. N. Seminogov, Nonlinear Regime of Capillary Wave Generation and Surface Ripples Formation Under the Action of the Laser Light (Scientific Research Center for Technological Lasers, USSR Academy of Sciences, Troytsk, USSR, 1986), preprint no. 15.

Gorbunov, A. A.

I. Ursu, I. N. Mihailescu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. P. Ageev, V. I. Konov, A. A. Gorbunov, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 3909 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Haken, H.

H. Haken, Advanced Synergetics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983).

Konov, V. I.

I. Ursu, I. A. Dorobantu, I. N. Mihailescu, M. Vlad, F. Spineanu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Konov, V. N. Tokarev, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1033, 329 (1989).

I. Ursu, I. N. Mihailescu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Konov, V. N. Tokarev, J. Appl. Phys. 61, 2445 (1987).
[CrossRef]

I. Ursu, I. N. Mihailescu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. P. Ageev, V. I. Konov, A. A. Gorbunov, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 3909 (1985).
[CrossRef]

I. Ursu, I. N. Mihailescu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Konov, Laser Interaction with Metals (Romanian Academy, Bucharest, 1986) (in Romanian).

Koroteev, N. I.

S. A. Akhmanov, V. I. Emel’yanov, N. I. Koroteev, V. N. Seminogov, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 147, 675 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mihailescu, I. N.

I. Ursu, I. A. Dorobantu, I. N. Mihailescu, M. Vlad, F. Spineanu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Konov, V. N. Tokarev, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1033, 329 (1989).

I. Ursu, I. N. Mihailescu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Konov, V. N. Tokarev, J. Appl. Phys. 61, 2445 (1987).
[CrossRef]

I. Ursu, I. N. Mihailescu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. P. Ageev, V. I. Konov, A. A. Gorbunov, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 3909 (1985).
[CrossRef]

I. Ursu, I. N. Mihailescu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Konov, Laser Interaction with Metals (Romanian Academy, Bucharest, 1986) (in Romanian).

Normand, C.

C. Normand, Y. Pomeau, M. G. Velarde, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 581 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, J. R. A.

J. R. A. Pearson, J. Fluid Mech. 4, 489 (1958); D. A. Nield, J. Fluid Mech. 19, 341 (1964); K. H. Winters, T. Plesser, K. A. Cliffe, Physica 29, 387 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pomeau, Y.

C. Normand, Y. Pomeau, M. G. Velarde, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 581 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Preston, J. S.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Prokhorov, A. M.

I. Ursu, I. A. Dorobantu, I. N. Mihailescu, M. Vlad, F. Spineanu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Konov, V. N. Tokarev, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1033, 329 (1989).

I. Ursu, I. N. Mihailescu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Konov, V. N. Tokarev, J. Appl. Phys. 61, 2445 (1987).
[CrossRef]

I. Ursu, I. N. Mihailescu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. P. Ageev, V. I. Konov, A. A. Gorbunov, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 3909 (1985).
[CrossRef]

I. Ursu, I. N. Mihailescu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Konov, Laser Interaction with Metals (Romanian Academy, Bucharest, 1986) (in Romanian).

Sattinger, D. H.

D. H. Sattinger, in Order and Fluctuations in Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics (Wiley, New York, 1981), p. 209.

Scriven, L. E.

L. E. Scriven, C. V. Sternling, J. Fluid Mech. 19, 321 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Seminogov, V. N.

S. A. Akhmanov, V. I. Emel’yanov, N. I. Koroteev, V. N. Seminogov, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 147, 675 (1985).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Emel’yanov, V. N. Seminogov, Nonlinear Regime of Capillary Wave Generation and Surface Ripples Formation Under the Action of the Laser Light (Scientific Research Center for Technological Lasers, USSR Academy of Sciences, Troytsk, USSR, 1986), preprint no. 15.

Sipe, J. E.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Spineanu, F.

I. Ursu, I. A. Dorobantu, I. N. Mihailescu, M. Vlad, F. Spineanu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Konov, V. N. Tokarev, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1033, 329 (1989).

Sternling, C. V.

L. E. Scriven, C. V. Sternling, J. Fluid Mech. 19, 321 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Tokarev, V. N.

I. Ursu, I. A. Dorobantu, I. N. Mihailescu, M. Vlad, F. Spineanu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Konov, V. N. Tokarev, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1033, 329 (1989).

I. Ursu, I. N. Mihailescu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Konov, V. N. Tokarev, J. Appl. Phys. 61, 2445 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tsao, Y.

D. J. Ehrlich, Y. Tsao, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 1, 978 (1976); J. Moylan, D. Baum, R. Jones, Appl. Phys. 40, 1 (1986).

Ursu, I.

I. Ursu, I. A. Dorobantu, I. N. Mihailescu, M. Vlad, F. Spineanu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Konov, V. N. Tokarev, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1033, 329 (1989).

I. Ursu, I. N. Mihailescu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Konov, V. N. Tokarev, J. Appl. Phys. 61, 2445 (1987).
[CrossRef]

I. Ursu, I. N. Mihailescu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. P. Ageev, V. I. Konov, A. A. Gorbunov, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 3909 (1985).
[CrossRef]

I. Ursu, I. N. Mihailescu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Konov, Laser Interaction with Metals (Romanian Academy, Bucharest, 1986) (in Romanian).

van Driel, H. M.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Velarde, M. G.

C. Normand, Y. Pomeau, M. G. Velarde, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 581 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Vlad, M.

I. Ursu, I. A. Dorobantu, I. N. Mihailescu, M. Vlad, F. Spineanu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Konov, V. N. Tokarev, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1033, 329 (1989).

Young, J. F.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

I. Ursu, I. N. Mihailescu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Konov, V. N. Tokarev, J. Appl. Phys. 61, 2445 (1987).
[CrossRef]

I. Ursu, I. N. Mihailescu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. P. Ageev, V. I. Konov, A. A. Gorbunov, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 3909 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluid Mech. (2)

J. R. A. Pearson, J. Fluid Mech. 4, 489 (1958); D. A. Nield, J. Fluid Mech. 19, 341 (1964); K. H. Winters, T. Plesser, K. A. Cliffe, Physica 29, 387 (1988).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Scriven, C. V. Sternling, J. Fluid Mech. 19, 321 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

D. J. Ehrlich, Y. Tsao, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 1, 978 (1976); J. Moylan, D. Baum, R. Jones, Appl. Phys. 40, 1 (1986).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 27, 1141 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

I. Ursu, I. A. Dorobantu, I. N. Mihailescu, M. Vlad, F. Spineanu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Konov, V. N. Tokarev, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 1033, 329 (1989).

Rev. Gen. Sci. Pures Appl. (1)

H. Bénard, Rev. Gen. Sci. Pures Appl. 11, 1261 (1900).

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

C. Normand, Y. Pomeau, M. G. Velarde, Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 581 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Usp. Fiz. Nauk (1)

S. A. Akhmanov, V. I. Emel’yanov, N. I. Koroteev, V. N. Seminogov, Usp. Fiz. Nauk 147, 675 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

V. I. Emel’yanov, V. N. Seminogov, Nonlinear Regime of Capillary Wave Generation and Surface Ripples Formation Under the Action of the Laser Light (Scientific Research Center for Technological Lasers, USSR Academy of Sciences, Troytsk, USSR, 1986), preprint no. 15.

H. Haken, Advanced Synergetics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1983).

D. H. Sattinger, in Order and Fluctuations in Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics (Wiley, New York, 1981), p. 209.

S. Chandrasekhar, Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability (Oxford U. PressOxford, UK, 1961).

I. Ursu, I. N. Mihailescu, A. M. Prokhorov, V. I. Konov, Laser Interaction with Metals (Romanian Academy, Bucharest, 1986) (in Romanian).

C. J. Smithelis, ed., Metal Reference Book (Butterworths, London, 1976).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Micrographs showing the surface periodic structures induced by multipulse excimer laser irradiation of lead castings in ambient air, with the incident laser intensity I ≃ 30 kW/cm2 and the number of subsequent laser pulses N = 100. The tilting angles of the sample in the electron microscope are (a) θ ≃ 0° and (b) θ ≃ 45°.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reproduction of one of Bénard’s original photographs showing Bénard cells in spermaceti.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temperature evolution on (a) heating a lead sample through laser irradiation and (b) cooling after termination of the laser pulse.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temperature profiles in the molten lead sample during the first microsecond after laser irradiation. The time spacing of the curves is 10 nsec. Note the inverse temperature gradient at a depth of ~2 μm on all the curves.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ra = g α Δ T d 3 νk .
Ma = ξ T d Δ T ρνk ,
ρc T t = x ( k T x ) + S ( x , t ) ,
S ( x , t ) = ( 1 R ) I 0 α exp [ α ( x x s ) ] .
Φ = ( 1 . 093 × 10 2 ) [ 2 + 3 T b T + 2 ( T b T ) 2 ] T 3 / 2 × exp ( T b / T ) ,

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