Abstract

The centroid of a single-transverse-mode laser beam fluctuates in position because of spontaneous emission of the laser medium into higher transverse cavity modes.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, O. Nilsson, Phys. Rev. A 34, 4025 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutter, W. H. Richardson, in Quantum Optics V, J. D. Harvey, D. F. Walls, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, to be published).
  3. D. H. Auston, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 420 (1968);P. W. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 235 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, A. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, K. Immink Schouhamer, Principles of Optical Disk Systems (Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1985).
  5. S. M. Arakelyan, S. A. Akhmanov, V. G. Tunkin, A. S. Chirkin, JETP Lett. 19, 299 (1974).
  6. B. L. Schumaker, Opt. Lett. 9, 189 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), Chap. 11.
  8. R. M. Gagliaro, S. Karp, Optical Communications (Wiley, New York, 1971), Chap. 5.
  9. G. T. Milburn, M. D. Levenson, R. M. Shelby, S. H. Perlmutter, R. G. DeVoe, D. F. Walls, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1476 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, O. Nilsson, Phys. Rev. A 34, 4025 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

1974 (1)

S. M. Arakelyan, S. A. Akhmanov, V. G. Tunkin, A. S. Chirkin, JETP Lett. 19, 299 (1974).

1968 (1)

D. H. Auston, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 420 (1968);P. W. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 235 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Akhmanov, S. A.

S. M. Arakelyan, S. A. Akhmanov, V. G. Tunkin, A. S. Chirkin, JETP Lett. 19, 299 (1974).

Arakelyan, S. M.

S. M. Arakelyan, S. A. Akhmanov, V. G. Tunkin, A. S. Chirkin, JETP Lett. 19, 299 (1974).

Auston, D. H.

D. H. Auston, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 420 (1968);P. W. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 235 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Bouwhuis, G.

G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, A. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, K. Immink Schouhamer, Principles of Optical Disk Systems (Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1985).

Braat, J.

G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, A. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, K. Immink Schouhamer, Principles of Optical Disk Systems (Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1985).

Chirkin, A. S.

S. M. Arakelyan, S. A. Akhmanov, V. G. Tunkin, A. S. Chirkin, JETP Lett. 19, 299 (1974).

DeVoe, R. G.

Gagliaro, R. M.

R. M. Gagliaro, S. Karp, Optical Communications (Wiley, New York, 1971), Chap. 5.

Huijser, A.

G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, A. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, K. Immink Schouhamer, Principles of Optical Disk Systems (Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1985).

Immink Schouhamer, K.

G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, A. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, K. Immink Schouhamer, Principles of Optical Disk Systems (Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1985).

Karp, S.

R. M. Gagliaro, S. Karp, Optical Communications (Wiley, New York, 1971), Chap. 5.

Levenson, M. D.

G. T. Milburn, M. D. Levenson, R. M. Shelby, S. H. Perlmutter, R. G. DeVoe, D. F. Walls, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1476 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutter, W. H. Richardson, in Quantum Optics V, J. D. Harvey, D. F. Walls, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, to be published).

Machida, S.

Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, O. Nilsson, Phys. Rev. A 34, 4025 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milburn, G. T.

Nilsson, O.

Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, O. Nilsson, Phys. Rev. A 34, 4025 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pasman, J.

G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, A. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, K. Immink Schouhamer, Principles of Optical Disk Systems (Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1985).

Perlmutter, S. H.

G. T. Milburn, M. D. Levenson, R. M. Shelby, S. H. Perlmutter, R. G. DeVoe, D. F. Walls, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1476 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutter, W. H. Richardson, in Quantum Optics V, J. D. Harvey, D. F. Walls, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, to be published).

Richardson, W. H.

M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutter, W. H. Richardson, in Quantum Optics V, J. D. Harvey, D. F. Walls, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, to be published).

Schumaker, B. L.

Shelby, R. M.

Siegman, A. E.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), Chap. 11.

Tunkin, V. G.

S. M. Arakelyan, S. A. Akhmanov, V. G. Tunkin, A. S. Chirkin, JETP Lett. 19, 299 (1974).

van Rosmalen, G.

G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, A. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, K. Immink Schouhamer, Principles of Optical Disk Systems (Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1985).

Walls, D. F.

Yamamoto, Y.

Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, O. Nilsson, Phys. Rev. A 34, 4025 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. H. Auston, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 420 (1968);P. W. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 13, 235 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

JETP Lett. (1)

S. M. Arakelyan, S. A. Akhmanov, V. G. Tunkin, A. S. Chirkin, JETP Lett. 19, 299 (1974).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, O. Nilsson, Phys. Rev. A 34, 4025 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

M. D. Levenson, S. H. Perlmutter, W. H. Richardson, in Quantum Optics V, J. D. Harvey, D. F. Walls, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, to be published).

G. Bouwhuis, J. Braat, A. Huijser, J. Pasman, G. van Rosmalen, K. Immink Schouhamer, Principles of Optical Disk Systems (Hilger, Bristol, UK, 1985).

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science, Mill Valley, Calif., 1986), Chap. 11.

R. M. Gagliaro, S. Karp, Optical Communications (Wiley, New York, 1971), Chap. 5.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic apparatus for measuring the spectrum of stochastic position noise. The beam of a single-frequency laser is directed through a calibrated variable attenuator onto a split P-I-N photodiode. The outputs from the top (T) and bottom (B) halves of the detector are summed or differenced with a hybrid-junction magic T. The noise current of the sum or difference current is then displayed on a spectrum analyzer. The dc currents from the two sides of the detector are also recorded.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectra of the stochastic position noise for various TEM00 laser powers. The excess noise level is measured in units of the vacuum noise (Hoovers).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The linewidth of the stochastic position noise peak at νt as a function of TEM00 output power. The observed TEM01 threshold is at 680 mW. (b) The ratio of lower to upper laser level populations calculated from stochastic position noise spectra using Eq. (6) and plotted as a function of TEM00 power.

Equations (7)

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E 00 ( x + δ , y ) = E 00 ( x , y ) δ w E 01 ( x , y ) + ,
δ ( t ) = w i B ( t ) i T ( t ) i B ( t ) + i T ( t ) w i 0 [ i B ( t ) i T ( t ) ] ,
S δ ( ω ) = δ ( t ) δ * ( 0 ) e i ω t d t = w 2 i 0 2 [ i B ( t ) i T ( t ) ] × [ i B ( 0 ) i T ( 0 ) ] * e i ω t d t = w 2 i 0 2 i s 2 ( ω ) ,
S δ ( ω ) = w 2 Ω P 0 [ 1 + F 01 ( ω ) ] ,
F 01 ( ω ) = k out η 2 G ( 1 N 1 / N 2 ) ( 1 g / η ) 2 × n = 0 n max ( 1 1 + [ ω 2 π ( ν t n ν L ) ] 2 / Γ 01 2 + 1 1 + { ω 2 π [ ( n + 1 ) ν L ν t ] } 2 / Γ 01 2 ) ,
Γ 01 = η ( 1 g / η ) .
| δ | 2 = w 2 k out ν g Ω G η ν L P 0 ( 1 g / η ) ( 1 N 1 / N 2 ) ,

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