Abstract

A polarization detector based on the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on the periodically corrugated metal surface of Schottky structures is presented. The surface modes are only excited by light having the appropriate polarization; they are leaky at the metal–semiconductor interface and are thus radiated into the semiconductor, where they generate charge carriers. By this mechanism the photocurrent of the device is enhanced and depends strongly on the polarization angle of the incident light. By use of two detectors with different grating orientations the polarization of the light can be determined unambiguously.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Jestl, A. Köck, W. Beinstingl, E. Gornik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1581 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Berthold, W. Beinstingl, E. Gornik, Opt. Lett. 12, 69 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Berthold, W. Beinstingl, R. Berger, E. Gornik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 526 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. R. J. Brueck, V. Diadiuk, T. Jones, W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 915 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. M. A. Azzam, Opt. Lett. 12, 555 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N. E. Glass, M. G. Weber, D. L. Mills, Phys. Rev. B 29, 6548 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Raether, in Surface Polaritons, V. M. Agranovic, D. L. Mills, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1982), p. 331.
  8. Y. J. Chen, E. S. Koteles, R. J. Seymour, G. J. Sonek, J M. Ballantyne, Solid State Commun. 46, 95 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. R. Seshadri, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 1187 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Jestl, W. Beinstingl, E. Gornik, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 1805 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

1989 (1)

M. Jestl, W. Beinstingl, E. Gornik, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 1805 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (2)

1986 (2)

S. R. Seshadri, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 1187 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Berthold, W. Beinstingl, R. Berger, E. Gornik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 526 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

S. R. J. Brueck, V. Diadiuk, T. Jones, W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 915 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

N. E. Glass, M. G. Weber, D. L. Mills, Phys. Rev. B 29, 6548 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

Y. J. Chen, E. S. Koteles, R. J. Seymour, G. J. Sonek, J M. Ballantyne, Solid State Commun. 46, 95 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Azzam, R. M. A.

Ballantyne, J M.

Y. J. Chen, E. S. Koteles, R. J. Seymour, G. J. Sonek, J M. Ballantyne, Solid State Commun. 46, 95 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Beinstingl, W.

M. Jestl, W. Beinstingl, E. Gornik, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 1805 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Jestl, A. Köck, W. Beinstingl, E. Gornik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1581 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Berthold, W. Beinstingl, E. Gornik, Opt. Lett. 12, 69 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Berthold, W. Beinstingl, R. Berger, E. Gornik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 526 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Berger, R.

K. Berthold, W. Beinstingl, R. Berger, E. Gornik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 526 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Berthold, K.

K. Berthold, W. Beinstingl, E. Gornik, Opt. Lett. 12, 69 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Berthold, W. Beinstingl, R. Berger, E. Gornik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 526 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R. J.

S. R. J. Brueck, V. Diadiuk, T. Jones, W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 915 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. J.

Y. J. Chen, E. S. Koteles, R. J. Seymour, G. J. Sonek, J M. Ballantyne, Solid State Commun. 46, 95 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Diadiuk, V.

S. R. J. Brueck, V. Diadiuk, T. Jones, W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 915 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Glass, N. E.

N. E. Glass, M. G. Weber, D. L. Mills, Phys. Rev. B 29, 6548 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gornik, E.

M. Jestl, W. Beinstingl, E. Gornik, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 1805 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Jestl, A. Köck, W. Beinstingl, E. Gornik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1581 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Berthold, W. Beinstingl, E. Gornik, Opt. Lett. 12, 69 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Berthold, W. Beinstingl, R. Berger, E. Gornik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 526 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jestl, M.

M. Jestl, W. Beinstingl, E. Gornik, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 1805 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Jestl, A. Köck, W. Beinstingl, E. Gornik, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1581 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jones, T.

S. R. J. Brueck, V. Diadiuk, T. Jones, W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 915 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Köck, A.

Koteles, E. S.

Y. J. Chen, E. S. Koteles, R. J. Seymour, G. J. Sonek, J M. Ballantyne, Solid State Commun. 46, 95 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lenth, W.

S. R. J. Brueck, V. Diadiuk, T. Jones, W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 915 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mills, D. L.

N. E. Glass, M. G. Weber, D. L. Mills, Phys. Rev. B 29, 6548 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, in Surface Polaritons, V. M. Agranovic, D. L. Mills, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1982), p. 331.

Seshadri, S. R.

S. R. Seshadri, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 1187 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Seymour, R. J.

Y. J. Chen, E. S. Koteles, R. J. Seymour, G. J. Sonek, J M. Ballantyne, Solid State Commun. 46, 95 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sonek, G. J.

Y. J. Chen, E. S. Koteles, R. J. Seymour, G. J. Sonek, J M. Ballantyne, Solid State Commun. 46, 95 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. G.

N. E. Glass, M. G. Weber, D. L. Mills, Phys. Rev. B 29, 6548 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Berthold, W. Beinstingl, R. Berger, E. Gornik, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 526 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. R. J. Brueck, V. Diadiuk, T. Jones, W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 915 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. R. Seshadri, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 1187 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Jestl, W. Beinstingl, E. Gornik, J. Appl. Phys. 65, 1805 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

N. E. Glass, M. G. Weber, D. L. Mills, Phys. Rev. B 29, 6548 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

Y. J. Chen, E. S. Koteles, R. J. Seymour, G. J. Sonek, J M. Ballantyne, Solid State Commun. 46, 95 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. Raether, in Surface Polaritons, V. M. Agranovic, D. L. Mills, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1982), p. 331.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of the SPP Schottky detector and principles of the excitation of plasmons by use of surface-grating coupling. Light (wave vector kL, electric field EL, angle of incidence ϑ) excites the SPP when the sum of k x L (the component of kL parallel to the surface) and kG (the grating vector) is equal to k x SPP (the x component of the wave vector of the SPP). The Al top layer and the p-Si bulk form a Schottky barrier with a thin-tunnel oxide in between.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Two detectors (A and B) with their gratings rotated by an angle ζ are needed for an unambiguous determination of the polarization angles δ and η. The photocurrent of the detectors after the background is subtracted is proportional to cos2|δ| and cos2|η|. (b) The spectral response of a polarization detector with δ = 0 (the solid curve, p-polarized light only) and δ = 90° (the dashed curve, s-polarized light only). The signal of the s-polarized light is equal to the background signal of all measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Photocurrents I sc SPP ( δ ) and I sc SPP ( η ) of detectors A and B (with the background signal subtracted) versus the preset polarization angle normalized by the photocurrents I sc SPP ( δ = 0 ) and I sc SPP ( η = 0 ). The curves are equal to cos2 δ and cos2 η, as expected. (b) The measured polarization angles | δ | = arccos [ I sc SPP ( δ ) / I sc SPP ( δ = 0 ) ] 1 / 2 (squares) and | η | = arccos [ I sc SPP ( η ) / I sc SPP ( η = 0 ) ] 1 / 2 (circles) are plotted versus the preset polarization angle to show the accuracy of the measurement.

Equations (2)

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k x SPP = k x L + n k G ,
I sc = I sc b + I sc SPP ( δ = 0 ) cos 2 δ .

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