Abstract

We describe a frequency-stabilized diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser that is actively frequency stabilized relative to a reference Fabry–Perot cavity using the Pound–Drever technique. We describe the servo loop and the measurement of its noise and gain performance and demonstrate its ability to reduce the laser frequency noise close to the shot-noise limit of 12.5mHz/Hz. This corresponds to a linewidth of ≈1 mHz, well below the Schawlow–Townes limit of 0.13 Hz that applies for a free-running laser.

© 1989 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Weiss, in Quarterly Progress Report, Research Laboratory of Electronics (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., 1972), Vol. 105, p. 54.
  2. D. Shoemaker, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, K. Maischberger, A. Rüdiger, Phys. Rev. D 38, 423 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Hils, J. Hall, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1406 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Schenzle, R. DeVoe, G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 25, 2606 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Salomon, D. Hils, J. Hall, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1576 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Helmcke, S. Lee, J. Hall, Appl. Opt. 21, 1686 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Kane, A. Nilsson, R. Byer, Opt. Lett. 12, 175 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Schawlow, C. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Yariv, W. Caton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 509 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Hartmann, F. Stoeckel, J. Phys. (Paris) 39, C1-32 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Houssin, M. Jardino, B. Gely, M. Desaintfuscien, Opt. Lett. 13, 823 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. N. Man, A. Brillet, Opt. Lett. 9, 333 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Hall, T. Hänsch, Opt. Lett. 9, 502 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (3)

1987 (2)

T. Kane, A. Nilsson, R. Byer, Opt. Lett. 12, 175 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shoemaker, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, K. Maischberger, A. Rüdiger, Phys. Rev. D 38, 423 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

1983 (1)

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

A. Schenzle, R. DeVoe, G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 25, 2606 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Helmcke, S. Lee, J. Hall, Appl. Opt. 21, 1686 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

F. Hartmann, F. Stoeckel, J. Phys. (Paris) 39, C1-32 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

A. Yariv, W. Caton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 509 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

A. Schawlow, C. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Brewer, G.

A. Schenzle, R. DeVoe, G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 25, 2606 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Brillet, A.

Byer, R.

Caton, W.

A. Yariv, W. Caton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 509 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Desaintfuscien, M.

DeVoe, R.

A. Schenzle, R. DeVoe, G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 25, 2606 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Drever, R.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gely, B.

Hall, J.

Hänsch, T.

Hartmann, F.

F. Hartmann, F. Stoeckel, J. Phys. (Paris) 39, C1-32 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Helmcke, J.

Hils, D.

Hough, J.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Houssin, M.

Jardino, M.

Kane, T.

Kowalski, F.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

Maischberger, K.

D. Shoemaker, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, K. Maischberger, A. Rüdiger, Phys. Rev. D 38, 423 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Man, C. N.

Munley, A.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, A.

Rüdiger, A.

D. Shoemaker, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, K. Maischberger, A. Rüdiger, Phys. Rev. D 38, 423 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Salomon, C.

Schawlow, A.

A. Schawlow, C. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Schenzle, A.

A. Schenzle, R. DeVoe, G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 25, 2606 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, R.

D. Shoemaker, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, K. Maischberger, A. Rüdiger, Phys. Rev. D 38, 423 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Schnupp, L.

D. Shoemaker, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, K. Maischberger, A. Rüdiger, Phys. Rev. D 38, 423 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Shoemaker, D.

D. Shoemaker, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, K. Maischberger, A. Rüdiger, Phys. Rev. D 38, 423 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stoeckel, F.

F. Hartmann, F. Stoeckel, J. Phys. (Paris) 39, C1-32 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Townes, C.

A. Schawlow, C. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Ward, H.

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, R.

R. Weiss, in Quarterly Progress Report, Research Laboratory of Electronics (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., 1972), Vol. 105, p. 54.

Winkler, W.

D. Shoemaker, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, K. Maischberger, A. Rüdiger, Phys. Rev. D 38, 423 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, W. Caton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 509 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. Drever, J. Hall, F. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. Ford, A. Munley, H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Yariv, W. Caton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 509 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. (Paris) (1)

F. Hartmann, F. Stoeckel, J. Phys. (Paris) 39, C1-32 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. (1)

A. Schawlow, C. Townes, Phys. Rev. 112, 1940 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. Schenzle, R. DeVoe, G. Brewer, Phys. Rev. A 25, 2606 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. D (1)

D. Shoemaker, R. Schilling, L. Schnupp, W. Winkler, K. Maischberger, A. Rüdiger, Phys. Rev. D 38, 423 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

D. Hils, J. Hall, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1406 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

R. Weiss, in Quarterly Progress Report, Research Laboratory of Electronics (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., 1972), Vol. 105, p. 54.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Actively stabilized laser. Lenses L1, L2, and L3 are collimating and matching lenses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Error signal as a function of the laser frequency. The solid curve is the superposition of the measured curve and the fitted analytical curve; the two are effectively indistinguishable. Also shown is a hundredfold horizontal expansion of the central part of the curve; the dotted line is the fitted analytical curve, and the crosses are the measured data points.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Upper curve: the frequency noise, expressed as a linear spectral density, of the unstabilized laser. For frequencies greater than 10 kHz the noise is dominated by the Schawlow–Townes limit of 0.2 Hz / Hz. Lower curve: the stabilized laser, measured at the error point of the servo system.

Equations (2)

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υ s = Δ v 16 l π c 2 T 1 r 1 r 2 M J 0 ( δ ) J 1 ( δ ) G 1 I max [ 1 + ( 2 v F Δ v c ) 2 ] 1 / 2 ,
υ ˜ n = G 1 2 2 e ( I mod + I amp ) ,

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