Abstract

Mapping of NO plumes by using laser-radar techniques has been demonstrated with a mobile differential absorption lidar system. The system was equipped with a narrow-linewidth Nd:YAG-pumped dye laser that, with doubling and mixing, generated pulse energies of 3–5 mJ at 226 nm, with a linewidth of 1 pm. This permitted range-resolved measurements of NO, with a range of about 500 m. The detection limit was estimated to 3 μg/m3, with an integration interval of 350 m. Spectroscopic studies on the γ(0, 0) bandhead near 226.8 nm were performed with 1- pm resolution, and the differential absorption cross section was determined to be (6.6 ± 0.6) × 10−22 m2, with a wavelength difference of 12 pm.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Aldén, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, Opt. Lett. 7, 543 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. H. Edner, K. Fredriksson, H. Hertz, S. Svanberg, “UV lidar techniques for atmospheric NO monitoring,” Lund Reports on Atomic Physics LRAP-21 (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 1983).
  3. E. D. Hinkley, Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 155 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, Appl. Opt. 15, 2080 (1976).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. R. T. Menzies, C. R. Webster, E. D. Hinkley, Appl. Opt. 22, 2655 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger, W. E. DeFeo, Appl. Opt. 19, 3282 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. C. K. N. Patel, Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 145 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  8. B. W. Jolliffe, E. Michelson, N. R. W. Swann, P. T. Woods, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Laser and Optical Remote Sensing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), p. 26.
  9. National Research Council Committee on Medical and Biologic Effects of Environmental Pollutants, Nitrogen Oxides (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1977).
  10. J. H. Seinfeld, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics of Air Pollution (Wiley, New York, 1986).
  11. H. Melhorn, A. R. Wellburn, Nature 327, 417 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  12. R. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing, Fundamentals and Applications (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1984).
  13. K. W. Rothe, U. Brinkmann, H. Walther, Appl. Phys. 3, 115 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  14. K. W. Rothe, U. Brinkmann, H. Walther, Appl. Phys. 4, 181 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  15. K. Fredriksson, H. Hertz, Appl. Opt. 23, 1403 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. B. Galle, A. Sunesson, W. Wendt, Atmos. Environ. 22, 569 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  17. H. Edner, K. Fredriksson, A. Sunesson, S. Svanberg, L. Unéus, W. Wendt, Appl. Opt. 26, 4330 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. H. Edner, G. W. Faris, A. Sunesson, S. Svanberg, “Atmospheric atomic mercury monitoring using differential absorption lidar techniques,” Appl. Opt. (submitted for publication).
  19. Zh. Nickolov, S. Svanberg, “On the possibilities of NO/NO2 simultaneous detection by DIAL,” Lund Reports on Atomic Physics LRAP-71 (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 1986).
  20. E. J. McCartney, Optics of the Atmosphere, Scattering by Molecules and Particles (Wiley, New York, 1976).
  21. M. J. T. Milton, NPL Rep. QU78 (National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK, 1987).
  22. P. W. Kruse, L. D. McGlauchlin, R. B. McQuistan, Elements of Infrared Technology (Wiley, New York, 1963).
  23. M. Griggs, J. Chem. Phys. 49, 857 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  24. V. Hasson, R. W. Nicholls, J. Phys. B 4, 1789 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  25. X. Shardanand, D. Prasad Rao, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 17, 433 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  26. J. R. Herman, J. E. Mentall, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 8967 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  27. H. S. Johnston, M. Paige, F. Yao, J. Geophys. Res. 89, 11661 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  28. B. Coquart, A. Jenouvrier, M. F. Merienne-Lafore, C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. B 302, 7 (1986).
  29. A. S.-C. Cheung, K. Yoshino, W. H. Parkinson, S. L. Guberman, D. E. Freeman, Planet. Space Sci. 34, 1007 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  30. M. J. T. Milton, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK (personal communication, 1988).

1988 (1)

B. Galle, A. Sunesson, W. Wendt, Atmos. Environ. 22, 569 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (2)

1986 (2)

B. Coquart, A. Jenouvrier, M. F. Merienne-Lafore, C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. B 302, 7 (1986).

A. S.-C. Cheung, K. Yoshino, W. H. Parkinson, S. L. Guberman, D. E. Freeman, Planet. Space Sci. 34, 1007 (1986).
[Crossref]

1984 (2)

H. S. Johnston, M. Paige, F. Yao, J. Geophys. Res. 89, 11661 (1984).
[Crossref]

K. Fredriksson, H. Hertz, Appl. Opt. 23, 1403 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

1982 (2)

M. Aldén, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, Opt. Lett. 7, 543 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Herman, J. E. Mentall, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 8967 (1982).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

1977 (1)

X. Shardanand, D. Prasad Rao, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 17, 433 (1977).
[Crossref]

1976 (3)

C. K. N. Patel, Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 145 (1976).
[Crossref]

E. D. Hinkley, Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 155 (1976).
[Crossref]

R. T. Menzies, M. S. Shumate, Appl. Opt. 15, 2080 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1974 (2)

K. W. Rothe, U. Brinkmann, H. Walther, Appl. Phys. 3, 115 (1974).
[Crossref]

K. W. Rothe, U. Brinkmann, H. Walther, Appl. Phys. 4, 181 (1974).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

V. Hasson, R. W. Nicholls, J. Phys. B 4, 1789 (1971).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

M. Griggs, J. Chem. Phys. 49, 857 (1968).
[Crossref]

Aldén, M.

Brinkmann, U.

K. W. Rothe, U. Brinkmann, H. Walther, Appl. Phys. 3, 115 (1974).
[Crossref]

K. W. Rothe, U. Brinkmann, H. Walther, Appl. Phys. 4, 181 (1974).
[Crossref]

Cheung, A. S.-C.

A. S.-C. Cheung, K. Yoshino, W. H. Parkinson, S. L. Guberman, D. E. Freeman, Planet. Space Sci. 34, 1007 (1986).
[Crossref]

Coquart, B.

B. Coquart, A. Jenouvrier, M. F. Merienne-Lafore, C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. B 302, 7 (1986).

DeFeo, W. E.

Edner, H.

H. Edner, K. Fredriksson, A. Sunesson, S. Svanberg, L. Unéus, W. Wendt, Appl. Opt. 26, 4330 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Aldén, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, Opt. Lett. 7, 543 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Edner, G. W. Faris, A. Sunesson, S. Svanberg, “Atmospheric atomic mercury monitoring using differential absorption lidar techniques,” Appl. Opt. (submitted for publication).

H. Edner, K. Fredriksson, H. Hertz, S. Svanberg, “UV lidar techniques for atmospheric NO monitoring,” Lund Reports on Atomic Physics LRAP-21 (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 1983).

Faris, G. W.

H. Edner, G. W. Faris, A. Sunesson, S. Svanberg, “Atmospheric atomic mercury monitoring using differential absorption lidar techniques,” Appl. Opt. (submitted for publication).

Fredriksson, K.

H. Edner, K. Fredriksson, A. Sunesson, S. Svanberg, L. Unéus, W. Wendt, Appl. Opt. 26, 4330 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Fredriksson, H. Hertz, Appl. Opt. 23, 1403 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Edner, K. Fredriksson, H. Hertz, S. Svanberg, “UV lidar techniques for atmospheric NO monitoring,” Lund Reports on Atomic Physics LRAP-21 (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 1983).

Freeman, D. E.

A. S.-C. Cheung, K. Yoshino, W. H. Parkinson, S. L. Guberman, D. E. Freeman, Planet. Space Sci. 34, 1007 (1986).
[Crossref]

Galle, B.

B. Galle, A. Sunesson, W. Wendt, Atmos. Environ. 22, 569 (1988).
[Crossref]

Griggs, M.

M. Griggs, J. Chem. Phys. 49, 857 (1968).
[Crossref]

Guberman, S. L.

A. S.-C. Cheung, K. Yoshino, W. H. Parkinson, S. L. Guberman, D. E. Freeman, Planet. Space Sci. 34, 1007 (1986).
[Crossref]

Hasson, V.

V. Hasson, R. W. Nicholls, J. Phys. B 4, 1789 (1971).
[Crossref]

Herman, J. R.

J. R. Herman, J. E. Mentall, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 8967 (1982).
[Crossref]

Hertz, H.

K. Fredriksson, H. Hertz, Appl. Opt. 23, 1403 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Edner, K. Fredriksson, H. Hertz, S. Svanberg, “UV lidar techniques for atmospheric NO monitoring,” Lund Reports on Atomic Physics LRAP-21 (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 1983).

Hinkley, E. D.

Jenouvrier, A.

B. Coquart, A. Jenouvrier, M. F. Merienne-Lafore, C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. B 302, 7 (1986).

Johnston, H. S.

H. S. Johnston, M. Paige, F. Yao, J. Geophys. Res. 89, 11661 (1984).
[Crossref]

Jolliffe, B. W.

B. W. Jolliffe, E. Michelson, N. R. W. Swann, P. T. Woods, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Laser and Optical Remote Sensing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), p. 26.

Killinger, D. K.

Kruse, P. W.

P. W. Kruse, L. D. McGlauchlin, R. B. McQuistan, Elements of Infrared Technology (Wiley, New York, 1963).

McCartney, E. J.

E. J. McCartney, Optics of the Atmosphere, Scattering by Molecules and Particles (Wiley, New York, 1976).

McGlauchlin, L. D.

P. W. Kruse, L. D. McGlauchlin, R. B. McQuistan, Elements of Infrared Technology (Wiley, New York, 1963).

McQuistan, R. B.

P. W. Kruse, L. D. McGlauchlin, R. B. McQuistan, Elements of Infrared Technology (Wiley, New York, 1963).

Measures, R.

R. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing, Fundamentals and Applications (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1984).

Melhorn, H.

H. Melhorn, A. R. Wellburn, Nature 327, 417 (1987).
[Crossref]

Mentall, J. E.

J. R. Herman, J. E. Mentall, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 8967 (1982).
[Crossref]

Menyuk, N.

Menzies, R. T.

Merienne-Lafore, M. F.

B. Coquart, A. Jenouvrier, M. F. Merienne-Lafore, C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. B 302, 7 (1986).

Michelson, E.

B. W. Jolliffe, E. Michelson, N. R. W. Swann, P. T. Woods, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Laser and Optical Remote Sensing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), p. 26.

Milton, M. J. T.

M. J. T. Milton, NPL Rep. QU78 (National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK, 1987).

M. J. T. Milton, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK (personal communication, 1988).

Nicholls, R. W.

V. Hasson, R. W. Nicholls, J. Phys. B 4, 1789 (1971).
[Crossref]

Nickolov, Zh.

Zh. Nickolov, S. Svanberg, “On the possibilities of NO/NO2 simultaneous detection by DIAL,” Lund Reports on Atomic Physics LRAP-71 (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 1986).

Paige, M.

H. S. Johnston, M. Paige, F. Yao, J. Geophys. Res. 89, 11661 (1984).
[Crossref]

Parkinson, W. H.

A. S.-C. Cheung, K. Yoshino, W. H. Parkinson, S. L. Guberman, D. E. Freeman, Planet. Space Sci. 34, 1007 (1986).
[Crossref]

Patel, C. K. N.

C. K. N. Patel, Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 145 (1976).
[Crossref]

Prasad Rao, D.

X. Shardanand, D. Prasad Rao, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 17, 433 (1977).
[Crossref]

Rothe, K. W.

K. W. Rothe, U. Brinkmann, H. Walther, Appl. Phys. 3, 115 (1974).
[Crossref]

K. W. Rothe, U. Brinkmann, H. Walther, Appl. Phys. 4, 181 (1974).
[Crossref]

Seinfeld, J. H.

J. H. Seinfeld, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics of Air Pollution (Wiley, New York, 1986).

Shardanand, X.

X. Shardanand, D. Prasad Rao, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 17, 433 (1977).
[Crossref]

Shumate, M. S.

Sunesson, A.

B. Galle, A. Sunesson, W. Wendt, Atmos. Environ. 22, 569 (1988).
[Crossref]

H. Edner, K. Fredriksson, A. Sunesson, S. Svanberg, L. Unéus, W. Wendt, Appl. Opt. 26, 4330 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Edner, G. W. Faris, A. Sunesson, S. Svanberg, “Atmospheric atomic mercury monitoring using differential absorption lidar techniques,” Appl. Opt. (submitted for publication).

Svanberg, S.

H. Edner, K. Fredriksson, A. Sunesson, S. Svanberg, L. Unéus, W. Wendt, Appl. Opt. 26, 4330 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Aldén, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, Opt. Lett. 7, 543 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Edner, G. W. Faris, A. Sunesson, S. Svanberg, “Atmospheric atomic mercury monitoring using differential absorption lidar techniques,” Appl. Opt. (submitted for publication).

Zh. Nickolov, S. Svanberg, “On the possibilities of NO/NO2 simultaneous detection by DIAL,” Lund Reports on Atomic Physics LRAP-71 (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 1986).

H. Edner, K. Fredriksson, H. Hertz, S. Svanberg, “UV lidar techniques for atmospheric NO monitoring,” Lund Reports on Atomic Physics LRAP-21 (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 1983).

Swann, N. R. W.

B. W. Jolliffe, E. Michelson, N. R. W. Swann, P. T. Woods, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Laser and Optical Remote Sensing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), p. 26.

Unéus, L.

Walther, H.

K. W. Rothe, U. Brinkmann, H. Walther, Appl. Phys. 3, 115 (1974).
[Crossref]

K. W. Rothe, U. Brinkmann, H. Walther, Appl. Phys. 4, 181 (1974).
[Crossref]

Webster, C. R.

Wellburn, A. R.

H. Melhorn, A. R. Wellburn, Nature 327, 417 (1987).
[Crossref]

Wendt, W.

Woods, P. T.

B. W. Jolliffe, E. Michelson, N. R. W. Swann, P. T. Woods, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Laser and Optical Remote Sensing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), p. 26.

Yao, F.

H. S. Johnston, M. Paige, F. Yao, J. Geophys. Res. 89, 11661 (1984).
[Crossref]

Yoshino, K.

A. S.-C. Cheung, K. Yoshino, W. H. Parkinson, S. L. Guberman, D. E. Freeman, Planet. Space Sci. 34, 1007 (1986).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. (2)

K. W. Rothe, U. Brinkmann, H. Walther, Appl. Phys. 3, 115 (1974).
[Crossref]

K. W. Rothe, U. Brinkmann, H. Walther, Appl. Phys. 4, 181 (1974).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Environ. (1)

B. Galle, A. Sunesson, W. Wendt, Atmos. Environ. 22, 569 (1988).
[Crossref]

C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. B (1)

B. Coquart, A. Jenouvrier, M. F. Merienne-Lafore, C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. B 302, 7 (1986).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Griggs, J. Chem. Phys. 49, 857 (1968).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

J. R. Herman, J. E. Mentall, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 8967 (1982).
[Crossref]

H. S. Johnston, M. Paige, F. Yao, J. Geophys. Res. 89, 11661 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. B (1)

V. Hasson, R. W. Nicholls, J. Phys. B 4, 1789 (1971).
[Crossref]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

X. Shardanand, D. Prasad Rao, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 17, 433 (1977).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

H. Melhorn, A. R. Wellburn, Nature 327, 417 (1987).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (2)

C. K. N. Patel, Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 145 (1976).
[Crossref]

E. D. Hinkley, Opt. Quantum Electron. 8, 155 (1976).
[Crossref]

Planet. Space Sci. (1)

A. S.-C. Cheung, K. Yoshino, W. H. Parkinson, S. L. Guberman, D. E. Freeman, Planet. Space Sci. 34, 1007 (1986).
[Crossref]

Other (11)

M. J. T. Milton, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK (personal communication, 1988).

B. W. Jolliffe, E. Michelson, N. R. W. Swann, P. T. Woods, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Laser and Optical Remote Sensing (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), p. 26.

National Research Council Committee on Medical and Biologic Effects of Environmental Pollutants, Nitrogen Oxides (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1977).

J. H. Seinfeld, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics of Air Pollution (Wiley, New York, 1986).

H. Edner, K. Fredriksson, H. Hertz, S. Svanberg, “UV lidar techniques for atmospheric NO monitoring,” Lund Reports on Atomic Physics LRAP-21 (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 1983).

R. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing, Fundamentals and Applications (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1984).

H. Edner, G. W. Faris, A. Sunesson, S. Svanberg, “Atmospheric atomic mercury monitoring using differential absorption lidar techniques,” Appl. Opt. (submitted for publication).

Zh. Nickolov, S. Svanberg, “On the possibilities of NO/NO2 simultaneous detection by DIAL,” Lund Reports on Atomic Physics LRAP-71 (Lund Institute of Technology, Lund, Sweden, 1986).

E. J. McCartney, Optics of the Atmosphere, Scattering by Molecules and Particles (Wiley, New York, 1976).

M. J. T. Milton, NPL Rep. QU78 (National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK, 1987).

P. W. Kruse, L. D. McGlauchlin, R. B. McQuistan, Elements of Infrared Technology (Wiley, New York, 1963).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectrum of part of the γ(0,0) bandhead of NO with 1-pm resolution. The optical depth was 88 parts in 106 m−1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

On- and off-resonance curves (lower) and the DIAL curve (upper) for a NO plume. Note the strong atmospheric attenuation and the heavy nondifferential absorption in the plume.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

NO plume mapping

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

DIAL curve for ambient air. The mean concentration was evaluated to 130 μg/m3 by fitting a straight line to the log of the on/off ratio.

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