Abstract

We have studied the polarization properties of phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing resonantly enhanced by the sodium 3S1/2 → 6S1/2 two-photon-allowed transition. As predicted by third-order theories, this interaction leads to simultaneous conjugation of the optical wave front and state of polarization (vector phase conjugation) when the pump intensities are sufficiently weak. However, qualitatively different polarization behavior is observed for pump intensities near or above the two-photon saturation intensity.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Grynberg, Opt. Commun. 48, 432 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Ducloy, D. Bloch, Phys. Rev. A 30, 3107 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  3. L. L. Chase, M. L. Claude, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. A 28, 3696 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  4. V. N. Blaschuk, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, A. V. Mamaev, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 356 (1980); G. Martin, L. L. Lam, R. W. Hellwarth, Opt. Lett. 5, 185 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. B. Ya. Zel’dovich, T. V. Yakovleva, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 501 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  6. N. G. Basov, V. F. Efimkov, I. G. Zuberev, A. V. Kotov, S. I. Mikhailov, M. G. Smirnov, JETP Lett. 28, 197 (1978); I. McMichael, M. Khoshnevisan, P. Yeh, Opt. Lett. 11, 525 (1986); I. McMichael, P. Yeh, P. Beckwith, Opt. Lett. 12, 507 (1987); I. McMichael, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 863 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. K. Kyuma, A. Yariv, S.-K. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 617 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. F. Liao, N. P. Economou, R. R. Freeman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1473 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  9. B. Ya. Zel’dovich, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, Principles of Phase Conjugation (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985).
  10. P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, Phys. Rev. 137, A801 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. Saikan, M. Kiguchi, Opt. Lett. 7, 555 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. T.-Y. Fu, M. Sargent, Opt. Lett. 5, 433 (1980); G. P. Agrawal, Opt. Commun. 42, 366 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. D. Grischkowsky, M. M. T. Loy, P. F. Liao, Phys. Rev. A 12, 2514 (1975); P. F. Liao, G. C. Bjorklund, Phys. Rev. A 15, 2009 (1977); G. Grynberg, M. Devaud, C. Flytzanis, B. Cagnac, J. Phys. (Paris) 41, 931 (1980); E. Giacobino, M. Devaud, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 434 (1980).
    [Crossref]

1986 (1)

K. Kyuma, A. Yariv, S.-K. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 617 (1986).
[Crossref]

1984 (2)

G. Grynberg, Opt. Commun. 48, 432 (1984).
[Crossref]

M. Ducloy, D. Bloch, Phys. Rev. A 30, 3107 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

L. L. Chase, M. L. Claude, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. A 28, 3696 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

1980 (4)

T.-Y. Fu, M. Sargent, Opt. Lett. 5, 433 (1980); G. P. Agrawal, Opt. Commun. 42, 366 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. F. Liao, N. P. Economou, R. R. Freeman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1473 (1980).
[Crossref]

V. N. Blaschuk, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, A. V. Mamaev, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 356 (1980); G. Martin, L. L. Lam, R. W. Hellwarth, Opt. Lett. 5, 185 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, T. V. Yakovleva, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 501 (1980).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

N. G. Basov, V. F. Efimkov, I. G. Zuberev, A. V. Kotov, S. I. Mikhailov, M. G. Smirnov, JETP Lett. 28, 197 (1978); I. McMichael, M. Khoshnevisan, P. Yeh, Opt. Lett. 11, 525 (1986); I. McMichael, P. Yeh, P. Beckwith, Opt. Lett. 12, 507 (1987); I. McMichael, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 863 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

D. Grischkowsky, M. M. T. Loy, P. F. Liao, Phys. Rev. A 12, 2514 (1975); P. F. Liao, G. C. Bjorklund, Phys. Rev. A 15, 2009 (1977); G. Grynberg, M. Devaud, C. Flytzanis, B. Cagnac, J. Phys. (Paris) 41, 931 (1980); E. Giacobino, M. Devaud, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 434 (1980).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, Phys. Rev. 137, A801 (1965).
[Crossref]

Basov, N. G.

N. G. Basov, V. F. Efimkov, I. G. Zuberev, A. V. Kotov, S. I. Mikhailov, M. G. Smirnov, JETP Lett. 28, 197 (1978); I. McMichael, M. Khoshnevisan, P. Yeh, Opt. Lett. 11, 525 (1986); I. McMichael, P. Yeh, P. Beckwith, Opt. Lett. 12, 507 (1987); I. McMichael, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 863 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blaschuk, V. N.

V. N. Blaschuk, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, A. V. Mamaev, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 356 (1980); G. Martin, L. L. Lam, R. W. Hellwarth, Opt. Lett. 5, 185 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bloch, D.

M. Ducloy, D. Bloch, Phys. Rev. A 30, 3107 (1984).
[Crossref]

Chase, L. L.

L. L. Chase, M. L. Claude, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. A 28, 3696 (1983).
[Crossref]

Claude, M. L.

L. L. Chase, M. L. Claude, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. A 28, 3696 (1983).
[Crossref]

Ducloy, M.

M. Ducloy, D. Bloch, Phys. Rev. A 30, 3107 (1984).
[Crossref]

Economou, N. P.

P. F. Liao, N. P. Economou, R. R. Freeman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1473 (1980).
[Crossref]

Efimkov, V. F.

N. G. Basov, V. F. Efimkov, I. G. Zuberev, A. V. Kotov, S. I. Mikhailov, M. G. Smirnov, JETP Lett. 28, 197 (1978); I. McMichael, M. Khoshnevisan, P. Yeh, Opt. Lett. 11, 525 (1986); I. McMichael, P. Yeh, P. Beckwith, Opt. Lett. 12, 507 (1987); I. McMichael, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 863 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freeman, R. R.

P. F. Liao, N. P. Economou, R. R. Freeman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1473 (1980).
[Crossref]

Fu, T.-Y.

Grischkowsky, D.

D. Grischkowsky, M. M. T. Loy, P. F. Liao, Phys. Rev. A 12, 2514 (1975); P. F. Liao, G. C. Bjorklund, Phys. Rev. A 15, 2009 (1977); G. Grynberg, M. Devaud, C. Flytzanis, B. Cagnac, J. Phys. (Paris) 41, 931 (1980); E. Giacobino, M. Devaud, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 434 (1980).
[Crossref]

Grynberg, G.

G. Grynberg, Opt. Commun. 48, 432 (1984).
[Crossref]

Hulin, D.

L. L. Chase, M. L. Claude, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. A 28, 3696 (1983).
[Crossref]

Kiguchi, M.

Kotov, A. V.

N. G. Basov, V. F. Efimkov, I. G. Zuberev, A. V. Kotov, S. I. Mikhailov, M. G. Smirnov, JETP Lett. 28, 197 (1978); I. McMichael, M. Khoshnevisan, P. Yeh, Opt. Lett. 11, 525 (1986); I. McMichael, P. Yeh, P. Beckwith, Opt. Lett. 12, 507 (1987); I. McMichael, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 863 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwong, S.-K.

K. Kyuma, A. Yariv, S.-K. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 617 (1986).
[Crossref]

Kyuma, K.

K. Kyuma, A. Yariv, S.-K. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 617 (1986).
[Crossref]

Liao, P. F.

P. F. Liao, N. P. Economou, R. R. Freeman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1473 (1980).
[Crossref]

D. Grischkowsky, M. M. T. Loy, P. F. Liao, Phys. Rev. A 12, 2514 (1975); P. F. Liao, G. C. Bjorklund, Phys. Rev. A 15, 2009 (1977); G. Grynberg, M. Devaud, C. Flytzanis, B. Cagnac, J. Phys. (Paris) 41, 931 (1980); E. Giacobino, M. Devaud, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 434 (1980).
[Crossref]

Loy, M. M. T.

D. Grischkowsky, M. M. T. Loy, P. F. Liao, Phys. Rev. A 12, 2514 (1975); P. F. Liao, G. C. Bjorklund, Phys. Rev. A 15, 2009 (1977); G. Grynberg, M. Devaud, C. Flytzanis, B. Cagnac, J. Phys. (Paris) 41, 931 (1980); E. Giacobino, M. Devaud, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 434 (1980).
[Crossref]

Maker, P. D.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, Phys. Rev. 137, A801 (1965).
[Crossref]

Mamaev, A. V.

V. N. Blaschuk, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, A. V. Mamaev, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 356 (1980); G. Martin, L. L. Lam, R. W. Hellwarth, Opt. Lett. 5, 185 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mikhailov, S. I.

N. G. Basov, V. F. Efimkov, I. G. Zuberev, A. V. Kotov, S. I. Mikhailov, M. G. Smirnov, JETP Lett. 28, 197 (1978); I. McMichael, M. Khoshnevisan, P. Yeh, Opt. Lett. 11, 525 (1986); I. McMichael, P. Yeh, P. Beckwith, Opt. Lett. 12, 507 (1987); I. McMichael, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 863 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

L. L. Chase, M. L. Claude, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. A 28, 3696 (1983).
[Crossref]

Pilipetsky, N. F.

V. N. Blaschuk, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, A. V. Mamaev, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 356 (1980); G. Martin, L. L. Lam, R. W. Hellwarth, Opt. Lett. 5, 185 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, Principles of Phase Conjugation (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985).

Saikan, S.

Sargent, M.

Shkunov, V. V.

V. N. Blaschuk, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, A. V. Mamaev, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 356 (1980); G. Martin, L. L. Lam, R. W. Hellwarth, Opt. Lett. 5, 185 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, Principles of Phase Conjugation (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985).

Smirnov, M. G.

N. G. Basov, V. F. Efimkov, I. G. Zuberev, A. V. Kotov, S. I. Mikhailov, M. G. Smirnov, JETP Lett. 28, 197 (1978); I. McMichael, M. Khoshnevisan, P. Yeh, Opt. Lett. 11, 525 (1986); I. McMichael, P. Yeh, P. Beckwith, Opt. Lett. 12, 507 (1987); I. McMichael, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 863 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Terhune, R. W.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, Phys. Rev. 137, A801 (1965).
[Crossref]

Yakovleva, T. V.

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, T. V. Yakovleva, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 501 (1980).
[Crossref]

Yariv, A.

K. Kyuma, A. Yariv, S.-K. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 617 (1986).
[Crossref]

Zel’dovich, B. Ya.

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, T. V. Yakovleva, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 501 (1980).
[Crossref]

V. N. Blaschuk, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, A. V. Mamaev, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 356 (1980); G. Martin, L. L. Lam, R. W. Hellwarth, Opt. Lett. 5, 185 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, Principles of Phase Conjugation (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985).

Zuberev, I. G.

N. G. Basov, V. F. Efimkov, I. G. Zuberev, A. V. Kotov, S. I. Mikhailov, M. G. Smirnov, JETP Lett. 28, 197 (1978); I. McMichael, M. Khoshnevisan, P. Yeh, Opt. Lett. 11, 525 (1986); I. McMichael, P. Yeh, P. Beckwith, Opt. Lett. 12, 507 (1987); I. McMichael, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 863 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Kyuma, A. Yariv, S.-K. Kwong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 617 (1986).
[Crossref]

JETP Lett. (1)

N. G. Basov, V. F. Efimkov, I. G. Zuberev, A. V. Kotov, S. I. Mikhailov, M. G. Smirnov, JETP Lett. 28, 197 (1978); I. McMichael, M. Khoshnevisan, P. Yeh, Opt. Lett. 11, 525 (1986); I. McMichael, P. Yeh, P. Beckwith, Opt. Lett. 12, 507 (1987); I. McMichael, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 863 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. Grynberg, Opt. Commun. 48, 432 (1984).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, Phys. Rev. 137, A801 (1965).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

M. Ducloy, D. Bloch, Phys. Rev. A 30, 3107 (1984).
[Crossref]

L. L. Chase, M. L. Claude, D. Hulin, A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. A 28, 3696 (1983).
[Crossref]

D. Grischkowsky, M. M. T. Loy, P. F. Liao, Phys. Rev. A 12, 2514 (1975); P. F. Liao, G. C. Bjorklund, Phys. Rev. A 15, 2009 (1977); G. Grynberg, M. Devaud, C. Flytzanis, B. Cagnac, J. Phys. (Paris) 41, 931 (1980); E. Giacobino, M. Devaud, F. Biraben, G. Grynberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 434 (1980).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. F. Liao, N. P. Economou, R. R. Freeman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1473 (1980).
[Crossref]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (2)

V. N. Blaschuk, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, A. V. Mamaev, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 356 (1980); G. Martin, L. L. Lam, R. W. Hellwarth, Opt. Lett. 5, 185 (1980).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, T. V. Yakovleva, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 501 (1980).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, N. F. Pilipetsky, V. V. Shkunov, Principles of Phase Conjugation (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Energy-level diagram showing the two-photon resonantly enhanced DFWM process. (b) Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensities of the polarization components parallel (Ix) and perpendicular (Iy) to the initial probe-beam polarization direction as functions of the excitation wavelength. (a) For low pump intensities (200 kW cm−2, where Isat = 1.2 MW cm−2), the VPC process is of high quality in that IyIx. (b) At high pump intensities (1.7Isat), the VPC process is severely degraded in that Iy is comparable with Ix. In each case, the waveplate in Fig. 1(b) was oriented to render the probe beam circularly polarized at the entrance to the sodium cell.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intensity of each polarization component plotted as a function of the degree of polarization distortion introduced into the probe wave. (a) For low pump intensities (0.16Isat), the effects of the polarization distortion are removed essentially completely (Ix is independent of θ and Iy, ≪ Ix. (b) For high pump intensities (1.7Isat), severe degradation of the VPC is observed (Ix and Iy are comparable and depend on θ).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fidelity of the VPC process, quantified by the ratio Ix/(Ix + Iy) (i.e., the ratio of the intensity of the proper polarization component to the total output intensity), plotted as a function of the intensity of one of the pump waves. The waveplate in Fig. 1(b) has been oriented to produce circular polarization.

Equations (2)

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P N L = A ( E · E * ) E + ½ B ( E · E ) E * ,
B = N 3 Δ 1 2 [ Δ 2 - i ( 1 / T 2 ) ] ( n S μ z n P n P μ z n S ) 2 ,

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