Abstract

A new method for frequency conversion in optical waveguides using rotationally twinned domains is proposed. High coupling efficiency is achieved for higher-order modes. The index step requirements are significantly reduced. The calculated conversion efficiency in a ZnSe–ZnS0.6Se0.4 structure is 4% for 1 mW of input power over a 3-mm phase-matched length.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Bloembergen, U.S. Patent No. 3,384,433 (May21, 1968).
  3. D. B. Anderson, J. T. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 266 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. K. Tien, Appl. Opt. 10, 2395 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Looser, P. Gunter, X. Wu, H. Arend, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), p. 210.
  6. T. Taniuchi, K. Yamamoto, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), p. 198.
  7. L. A. Kolodziejski, R. L. Gunshor, N. Otsuka, S. Datta, W. M. Becker, A. V. Nurmikko, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1666 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Mohammed, D. A. Cammack, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 37 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. T. F. Marple, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 539 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. M. Conwell, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 867 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. P. van der Ziel, R. M. Mikulyak, A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 71 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. P. van der Ziel, R. C. Miller, R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 238 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Ito, H. Inaba, Opt. Lett. 2, 139 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. A. Maier, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 925 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. A. Duguay, J. S. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 547 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. F. Dewey, Rev. Phys. Appl. 12, 405 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. C. Rustagi, S. C. Mehendale, S. Meenakshi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1029 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. F. Dewey, L. O. Hocker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 442 (1975).
    [CrossRef]

1987 (1)

K. Mohammed, D. A. Cammack, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 37 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

L. A. Kolodziejski, R. L. Gunshor, N. Otsuka, S. Datta, W. M. Becker, A. V. Nurmikko, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1666 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

M. A. Duguay, J. S. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 547 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

K. C. Rustagi, S. C. Mehendale, S. Meenakshi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1029 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. A. Maier, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 925 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1977 (1)

C. F. Dewey, Rev. Phys. Appl. 12, 405 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

C. F. Dewey, L. O. Hocker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 442 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. P. van der Ziel, R. M. Mikulyak, A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 71 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. P. van der Ziel, R. C. Miller, R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 238 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

E. M. Conwell, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 867 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971 (2)

D. B. Anderson, J. T. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 266 (1971).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, Appl. Opt. 10, 2395 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1964 (1)

D. T. F. Marple, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 539 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, D. B.

D. B. Anderson, J. T. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 266 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Arend, H.

H. Looser, P. Gunter, X. Wu, H. Arend, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), p. 210.

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Becker, W. M.

L. A. Kolodziejski, R. L. Gunshor, N. Otsuka, S. Datta, W. M. Becker, A. V. Nurmikko, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1666 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[CrossRef]

N. Bloembergen, U.S. Patent No. 3,384,433 (May21, 1968).

Boyd, J. T.

D. B. Anderson, J. T. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 266 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Cammack, D. A.

K. Mohammed, D. A. Cammack, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 37 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

J. P. van der Ziel, R. M. Mikulyak, A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 71 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Conwell, E. M.

E. M. Conwell, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 867 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Datta, S.

L. A. Kolodziejski, R. L. Gunshor, N. Otsuka, S. Datta, W. M. Becker, A. V. Nurmikko, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1666 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Dewey, C. F.

C. F. Dewey, Rev. Phys. Appl. 12, 405 (1977).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Dewey, L. O. Hocker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 442 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ducuing, J.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Duguay, M. A.

M. A. Duguay, J. S. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 547 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gunshor, R. L.

L. A. Kolodziejski, R. L. Gunshor, N. Otsuka, S. Datta, W. M. Becker, A. V. Nurmikko, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1666 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gunter, P.

H. Looser, P. Gunter, X. Wu, H. Arend, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), p. 210.

Hocker, L. O.

C. F. Dewey, L. O. Hocker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 442 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Inaba, H.

Ito, H.

Kolodziejski, L. A.

L. A. Kolodziejski, R. L. Gunshor, N. Otsuka, S. Datta, W. M. Becker, A. V. Nurmikko, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1666 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Logan, R. A.

J. P. van der Ziel, R. C. Miller, R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 238 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Looser, H.

H. Looser, P. Gunter, X. Wu, H. Arend, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), p. 210.

Maier, A. A.

A. A. Maier, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 925 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Marple, D. T. F.

D. T. F. Marple, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 539 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Meenakshi, S.

K. C. Rustagi, S. C. Mehendale, S. Meenakshi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1029 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mehendale, S. C.

K. C. Rustagi, S. C. Mehendale, S. Meenakshi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1029 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mikulyak, R. M.

J. P. van der Ziel, R. M. Mikulyak, A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 71 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. C.

J. P. van der Ziel, R. C. Miller, R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 238 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mohammed, K.

K. Mohammed, D. A. Cammack, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 37 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nurmikko, A. V.

L. A. Kolodziejski, R. L. Gunshor, N. Otsuka, S. Datta, W. M. Becker, A. V. Nurmikko, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1666 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Otsuka, N.

L. A. Kolodziejski, R. L. Gunshor, N. Otsuka, S. Datta, W. M. Becker, A. V. Nurmikko, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1666 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pershan, P. S.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Rustagi, K. C.

K. C. Rustagi, S. C. Mehendale, S. Meenakshi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1029 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Taniuchi, T.

T. Taniuchi, K. Yamamoto, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), p. 198.

Tien, P. K.

van der Ziel, J. P.

J. P. van der Ziel, R. M. Mikulyak, A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 71 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. P. van der Ziel, R. C. Miller, R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 238 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J. S.

M. A. Duguay, J. S. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 547 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.

H. Looser, P. Gunter, X. Wu, H. Arend, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), p. 210.

Yamamoto, K.

T. Taniuchi, K. Yamamoto, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), p. 198.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

D. B. Anderson, J. T. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 266 (1971).
[CrossRef]

K. Mohammed, D. A. Cammack, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 37 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. P. van der Ziel, R. M. Mikulyak, A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 71 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. P. van der Ziel, R. C. Miller, R. A. Logan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 238 (1974).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Duguay, J. S. Weiner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 547 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Dewey, L. O. Hocker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 442 (1975).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

E. M. Conwell, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 867 (1973).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Rustagi, S. C. Mehendale, S. Meenakshi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1029 (1982).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Kolodziejski, R. L. Gunshor, N. Otsuka, S. Datta, W. M. Becker, A. V. Nurmikko, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1666 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. T. F. Marple, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 539 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Phys. Appl. (1)

C. F. Dewey, Rev. Phys. Appl. 12, 405 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. A. Maier, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 925 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

N. Bloembergen, U.S. Patent No. 3,384,433 (May21, 1968).

H. Looser, P. Gunter, X. Wu, H. Arend, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), p. 210.

T. Taniuchi, K. Yamamoto, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), p. 198.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transverse distributions of electric-field amplitudes for fundamental and harmonic frequencies and of harmonic polarization amplitude in a ZnSe waveguide with three rotationally twinned layers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(I) Frequency-conversion efficiency represented as (tSHGeff)−1 as a function of harmonic mode number in a ZnSe waveguide for the following waveguide types: Ia, a waveguide with rotationally twinned layers; Ib, a wayeguide with alternate linear and nonlinear layers; Ic, an ordinary, uniform waveguide. (II) Minimum refractive-index step and the corresponding mole fraction of S in ZnSxSe1−x necessary to achieve phase matching as a function of the harmonic mode number.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Proposed waveguide with two rotationally twinned layers fabricated by ion exchange and subsequent cutting and gluing together. 1, Substrate; 2, guiding layer.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P 2 ω = 2 ( μ 0 0 ) 3 / 2 ω 2 L 2 d m 2 ( n ω ) 2 n 2 ω P ω 2 W t SHG eff ( sin ½ Δ β L ½ Δ β L ) 2 .
1 t SHG eff = I 2 ( t ω eff ) 2 t 2 ω eff ,
I = - d ( x ) [ E ( ω ) ( x ) ] 2 E ( 2 ω ) ( x ) d x ,
t ω [ 2 ω ] eff = - [ E ( ω [ 2 ω ] ) ( x ) ] 2 d x ,

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