Abstract

In coherent-optical transmission systems continuous or endless polarization matching between the superposed beams must be ensured. We describe a practical closed-loop polarization-control system with two integrated-optical retarders acting as polarization transformers. They have variable retardations and variable eigenmodes, i.e., adjustable birefringence magnitude and orientation as in a Babinet–Soleil compensator. In theory, one retarder would be sufficient. However, a second device is added to correct nonideal behavior of the first. The intensity losses during polarization control are less than 0.15 dB.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. Sasaki, K. Tajima, S. Seikai, Electron. Lett. 23, 127 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. G. Hodgkinson, R. A. Harmon, D. W. Smith, Electron. Lett. 23, 513 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. A. Smith, R. Noé, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper ME4.
  4. B. Glance, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 274 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. J. Mahon, G. D. Khoe, J. H. Angenent, in Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Optical Communications (Consulting Committee of the Professional Electroengineers’ Organizations in Finland, Helsinki, 1987), Vol. 3, pp. 46–49.
  6. R. Noé, in Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Optical Communications (Consulting Committee of the Professional Electroengineers’ Organizations in Finland, Helsinki, 1987), Vol. 1, pp. 371–374.
  7. L. J. Rysdale, Electron. Lett. 22, 100 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Noé, Electron. Lett. 22, 1341 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. G. Walker, G. R. Walker, Electron. Lett. 23, 290 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Heidrich, C. H. von Helmolt, D. Hoffmann, H. Ahlers, A. Kleinwächter, in Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Optical Communications (Consulting Committee of the Professional Electroengineers’ Organizations in Finland, Helsinki, 1987), Vol. 1, pp. 257–260.
  11. F. Heismann, R. Ulrich, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 767 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Noé, H. Heidrich, D. Hoffmann, “Endless polarization control systems for coherent optics,”IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).
  13. A. Donaldson, K. K. Wong, Electron. Lett. 23, 1378 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. M. Ghee, G. D. Thurmond, H. Blauvelt, H. W. Yen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 211 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Thaniyavarn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 674 (1985).
    [CrossRef]

1987 (5)

Y. Sasaki, K. Tajima, S. Seikai, Electron. Lett. 23, 127 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Hodgkinson, R. A. Harmon, D. W. Smith, Electron. Lett. 23, 513 (1987).
[CrossRef]

B. Glance, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 274 (1987).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Walker, G. R. Walker, Electron. Lett. 23, 290 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Donaldson, K. K. Wong, Electron. Lett. 23, 1378 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

L. J. Rysdale, Electron. Lett. 22, 100 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. Noé, Electron. Lett. 22, 1341 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

C. M. Ghee, G. D. Thurmond, H. Blauvelt, H. W. Yen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 211 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Thaniyavarn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 674 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

F. Heismann, R. Ulrich, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 767 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ahlers, H.

H. Heidrich, C. H. von Helmolt, D. Hoffmann, H. Ahlers, A. Kleinwächter, in Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Optical Communications (Consulting Committee of the Professional Electroengineers’ Organizations in Finland, Helsinki, 1987), Vol. 1, pp. 257–260.

Angenent, J. H.

C. J. Mahon, G. D. Khoe, J. H. Angenent, in Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Optical Communications (Consulting Committee of the Professional Electroengineers’ Organizations in Finland, Helsinki, 1987), Vol. 3, pp. 46–49.

Blauvelt, H.

C. M. Ghee, G. D. Thurmond, H. Blauvelt, H. W. Yen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 211 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Donaldson, A.

A. Donaldson, K. K. Wong, Electron. Lett. 23, 1378 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ghee, C. M.

C. M. Ghee, G. D. Thurmond, H. Blauvelt, H. W. Yen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 211 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Glance, B.

B. Glance, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 274 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Harmon, R. A.

T. G. Hodgkinson, R. A. Harmon, D. W. Smith, Electron. Lett. 23, 513 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Heidrich, H.

H. Heidrich, C. H. von Helmolt, D. Hoffmann, H. Ahlers, A. Kleinwächter, in Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Optical Communications (Consulting Committee of the Professional Electroengineers’ Organizations in Finland, Helsinki, 1987), Vol. 1, pp. 257–260.

R. Noé, H. Heidrich, D. Hoffmann, “Endless polarization control systems for coherent optics,”IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Heismann, F.

F. Heismann, R. Ulrich, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 767 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hodgkinson, T. G.

T. G. Hodgkinson, R. A. Harmon, D. W. Smith, Electron. Lett. 23, 513 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, D.

H. Heidrich, C. H. von Helmolt, D. Hoffmann, H. Ahlers, A. Kleinwächter, in Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Optical Communications (Consulting Committee of the Professional Electroengineers’ Organizations in Finland, Helsinki, 1987), Vol. 1, pp. 257–260.

R. Noé, H. Heidrich, D. Hoffmann, “Endless polarization control systems for coherent optics,”IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Khoe, G. D.

C. J. Mahon, G. D. Khoe, J. H. Angenent, in Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Optical Communications (Consulting Committee of the Professional Electroengineers’ Organizations in Finland, Helsinki, 1987), Vol. 3, pp. 46–49.

Kleinwächter, A.

H. Heidrich, C. H. von Helmolt, D. Hoffmann, H. Ahlers, A. Kleinwächter, in Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Optical Communications (Consulting Committee of the Professional Electroengineers’ Organizations in Finland, Helsinki, 1987), Vol. 1, pp. 257–260.

Mahon, C. J.

C. J. Mahon, G. D. Khoe, J. H. Angenent, in Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Optical Communications (Consulting Committee of the Professional Electroengineers’ Organizations in Finland, Helsinki, 1987), Vol. 3, pp. 46–49.

Noé, R.

R. Noé, Electron. Lett. 22, 1341 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. Noé, H. Heidrich, D. Hoffmann, “Endless polarization control systems for coherent optics,”IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

D. A. Smith, R. Noé, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper ME4.

R. Noé, in Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Optical Communications (Consulting Committee of the Professional Electroengineers’ Organizations in Finland, Helsinki, 1987), Vol. 1, pp. 371–374.

Rysdale, L. J.

L. J. Rysdale, Electron. Lett. 22, 100 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, Y.

Y. Sasaki, K. Tajima, S. Seikai, Electron. Lett. 23, 127 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Seikai, S.

Y. Sasaki, K. Tajima, S. Seikai, Electron. Lett. 23, 127 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. A.

D. A. Smith, R. Noé, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper ME4.

Smith, D. W.

T. G. Hodgkinson, R. A. Harmon, D. W. Smith, Electron. Lett. 23, 513 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tajima, K.

Y. Sasaki, K. Tajima, S. Seikai, Electron. Lett. 23, 127 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Thaniyavarn, S.

S. Thaniyavarn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 674 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Thurmond, G. D.

C. M. Ghee, G. D. Thurmond, H. Blauvelt, H. W. Yen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 211 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

F. Heismann, R. Ulrich, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 767 (1982).
[CrossRef]

von Helmolt, C. H.

H. Heidrich, C. H. von Helmolt, D. Hoffmann, H. Ahlers, A. Kleinwächter, in Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Optical Communications (Consulting Committee of the Professional Electroengineers’ Organizations in Finland, Helsinki, 1987), Vol. 1, pp. 257–260.

Walker, G. R.

N. G. Walker, G. R. Walker, Electron. Lett. 23, 290 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Walker, N. G.

N. G. Walker, G. R. Walker, Electron. Lett. 23, 290 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K. K.

A. Donaldson, K. K. Wong, Electron. Lett. 23, 1378 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Yen, H. W.

C. M. Ghee, G. D. Thurmond, H. Blauvelt, H. W. Yen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 211 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. M. Ghee, G. D. Thurmond, H. Blauvelt, H. W. Yen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 211 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Thaniyavarn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 674 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (6)

A. Donaldson, K. K. Wong, Electron. Lett. 23, 1378 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasaki, K. Tajima, S. Seikai, Electron. Lett. 23, 127 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Hodgkinson, R. A. Harmon, D. W. Smith, Electron. Lett. 23, 513 (1987).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Rysdale, Electron. Lett. 22, 100 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. Noé, Electron. Lett. 22, 1341 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Walker, G. R. Walker, Electron. Lett. 23, 290 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

B. Glance, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 274 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. Heismann, R. Ulrich, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 767 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

R. Noé, H. Heidrich, D. Hoffmann, “Endless polarization control systems for coherent optics,”IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

C. J. Mahon, G. D. Khoe, J. H. Angenent, in Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Optical Communications (Consulting Committee of the Professional Electroengineers’ Organizations in Finland, Helsinki, 1987), Vol. 3, pp. 46–49.

R. Noé, in Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Optical Communications (Consulting Committee of the Professional Electroengineers’ Organizations in Finland, Helsinki, 1987), Vol. 1, pp. 371–374.

D. A. Smith, R. Noé, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper ME4.

H. Heidrich, C. H. von Helmolt, D. Hoffmann, H. Ahlers, A. Kleinwächter, in Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Optical Communications (Consulting Committee of the Professional Electroengineers’ Organizations in Finland, Helsinki, 1987), Vol. 1, pp. 257–260.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross section of an integrated-optical PS transformer and (b) experimental setup with two PS transformers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PS transformation on the Poincaré sphere starting with circular input PS.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot of the nonlinear PS corrections f3(d2) and f4(d2) by the second polarization transformer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intensity I and retardations versus time during endless PS control with a rotating polarizer (a) when the points d1 = 0 and d1 = π are not touched and (b) when they are touched.

Equations (8)

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β TE β TM = 2 δ = 2 δ 0 1 / 2 ( r 22 r 12 ) n 0 3 E y 2 π α / λ ,
κ n 0 3 r 61 E x .
tan ( d 2 ) = κ / δ E x / ( E y E y 0 ) .
d 1 = 2 ( κ 2 + δ 2 ) 1 / 2 L ,
E y E y 0 d 1 cos ( d 2 ) ,
E x d 1 sin ( d 2 ) .
E y E y 0 d 3 + f 3 ( d 2 ) d 1 / π ,
E x d 4 + f 4 ( d 2 ) d 1 / π .

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