Abstract

We have observed that two-body collisions between cold sodium atoms confined within a magnetic-molasses optical trap lead to significant atomic-density-dependent trap losses. Such losses set an upper limit to the product of atomic density and confinement time that can be achieved in such a trap.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, A. Cable, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. L. Raab, M. G. Prentiss, A. E. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Vigué, Phys. Rev. A 34, 4476 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Chu, L. Hollberg, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Cable, A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 48 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Salomon, J. Dalibard, A. Aspect, H. Metcalf, C. Cohen-Tannaoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1659 (1987); M. Prentiss, S. Ezekiel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 46 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. L. Gould, P. D. Lett, P. S. Julienne, W. D. Phillips, H. R. Thorsheim, J. Weiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 788 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. C. Stwalley, Y.-H. Uang, G. Pichler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 1164 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. R. Thorsheim, J. Weiner, P. S. Julienne, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2420 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. W. Muller, W. Bussert, M.-W. Ruf, H. Hotop, W. Meyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2279 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

P. L. Gould, P. D. Lett, P. S. Julienne, W. D. Phillips, H. R. Thorsheim, J. Weiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 788 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (4)

H. R. Thorsheim, J. Weiner, P. S. Julienne, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2420 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Muller, W. Bussert, M.-W. Ruf, H. Hotop, W. Meyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2279 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Raab, M. G. Prentiss, A. E. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Salomon, J. Dalibard, A. Aspect, H. Metcalf, C. Cohen-Tannaoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1659 (1987); M. Prentiss, S. Ezekiel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 46 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (2)

S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, A. Cable, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vigué, Phys. Rev. A 34, 4476 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

S. Chu, L. Hollberg, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Cable, A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 48 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

W. C. Stwalley, Y.-H. Uang, G. Pichler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 1164 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, A. Cable, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chu, L. Hollberg, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Cable, A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 48 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aspect, A.

C. Salomon, J. Dalibard, A. Aspect, H. Metcalf, C. Cohen-Tannaoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1659 (1987); M. Prentiss, S. Ezekiel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 46 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, A. Cable, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chu, L. Hollberg, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Cable, A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 48 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bussert, W.

M. W. Muller, W. Bussert, M.-W. Ruf, H. Hotop, W. Meyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2279 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, A. Cable, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chu, L. Hollberg, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Cable, A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 48 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A. E.

E. L. Raab, M. G. Prentiss, A. E. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

E. L. Raab, M. G. Prentiss, A. E. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, A. Cable, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chu, L. Hollberg, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Cable, A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 48 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen-Tannaoudji, C.

C. Salomon, J. Dalibard, A. Aspect, H. Metcalf, C. Cohen-Tannaoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1659 (1987); M. Prentiss, S. Ezekiel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 46 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dalibard, J.

C. Salomon, J. Dalibard, A. Aspect, H. Metcalf, C. Cohen-Tannaoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1659 (1987); M. Prentiss, S. Ezekiel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 46 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gould, P. L.

P. L. Gould, P. D. Lett, P. S. Julienne, W. D. Phillips, H. R. Thorsheim, J. Weiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 788 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollberg, L.

S. Chu, L. Hollberg, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Cable, A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 48 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hotop, H.

M. W. Muller, W. Bussert, M.-W. Ruf, H. Hotop, W. Meyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2279 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Julienne, P. S.

P. L. Gould, P. D. Lett, P. S. Julienne, W. D. Phillips, H. R. Thorsheim, J. Weiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 788 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Thorsheim, J. Weiner, P. S. Julienne, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2420 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lett, P. D.

P. L. Gould, P. D. Lett, P. S. Julienne, W. D. Phillips, H. R. Thorsheim, J. Weiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 788 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metcalf, H.

C. Salomon, J. Dalibard, A. Aspect, H. Metcalf, C. Cohen-Tannaoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1659 (1987); M. Prentiss, S. Ezekiel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 46 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, W.

M. W. Muller, W. Bussert, M.-W. Ruf, H. Hotop, W. Meyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2279 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, M. W.

M. W. Muller, W. Bussert, M.-W. Ruf, H. Hotop, W. Meyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2279 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, W. D.

P. L. Gould, P. D. Lett, P. S. Julienne, W. D. Phillips, H. R. Thorsheim, J. Weiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 788 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pichler, G.

W. C. Stwalley, Y.-H. Uang, G. Pichler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 1164 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Prentiss, M. G.

E. L. Raab, M. G. Prentiss, A. E. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pritchard, D. E.

E. L. Raab, M. G. Prentiss, A. E. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raab, E. L.

E. L. Raab, M. G. Prentiss, A. E. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruf, M.-W.

M. W. Muller, W. Bussert, M.-W. Ruf, H. Hotop, W. Meyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2279 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salomon, C.

C. Salomon, J. Dalibard, A. Aspect, H. Metcalf, C. Cohen-Tannaoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1659 (1987); M. Prentiss, S. Ezekiel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 46 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stwalley, W. C.

W. C. Stwalley, Y.-H. Uang, G. Pichler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 1164 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Thorsheim, H. R.

P. L. Gould, P. D. Lett, P. S. Julienne, W. D. Phillips, H. R. Thorsheim, J. Weiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 788 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Thorsheim, J. Weiner, P. S. Julienne, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2420 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uang, Y.-H.

W. C. Stwalley, Y.-H. Uang, G. Pichler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 1164 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Vigué, J.

J. Vigué, Phys. Rev. A 34, 4476 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiner, J.

P. L. Gould, P. D. Lett, P. S. Julienne, W. D. Phillips, H. R. Thorsheim, J. Weiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 788 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Thorsheim, J. Weiner, P. S. Julienne, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2420 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. Vigué, Phys. Rev. A 34, 4476 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

S. Chu, L. Hollberg, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Cable, A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 48 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Salomon, J. Dalibard, A. Aspect, H. Metcalf, C. Cohen-Tannaoudji, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1659 (1987); M. Prentiss, S. Ezekiel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 46 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Gould, P. D. Lett, P. S. Julienne, W. D. Phillips, H. R. Thorsheim, J. Weiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 788 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. C. Stwalley, Y.-H. Uang, G. Pichler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 1164 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Thorsheim, J. Weiner, P. S. Julienne, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2420 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Muller, W. Bussert, M.-W. Ruf, H. Hotop, W. Meyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2279 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chu, J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, A. Cable, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 314 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Raab, M. G. Prentiss, A. E. Cable, S. Chu, D. E. Pritchard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2631 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Decay of the trap fluorescence (F) with time for four different values of the initial trapped atom density, n ¯i; all other trap parameters were held constant. The data were obtained by using type I operation with a detuning of −8.8 MHz. The circles show fits of Eq. (2) to the curves by using τ = 95 sec and the same value of βF for all curves. The values of βFτF for curves a, b, c, and d were 0.7, 1.9, 8.6, and 21.3, respectively. The initial atomic density for curve d was approximately 7 × 109 cm−3.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Filled circles show the values measured for the exponential decay constant as a function of the background pressure in the vacuum chamber. The straight line is a fit to the data with a slope of −1; it corresponds to a collision cross section of 3.3 × 10−14 cm2 for a background gas of N2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative variation in the size of β0 with light intensity I. The data were obtained with type II tuning and a detuning of −10.0 MHz. The filled circles show βA versus I, and the open circles show βF(F/A) versus I. The dashed curve shows the dependence of the excited-state fraction, f, on I. The trap size l remained essentially constant over the entire range of intensities.

Equations (2)

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d n ¯ d t = n ¯ τ β 0 n ¯ 2 .
n ¯ ( t ) = n ¯ i exp ( t ) / { 1 + β 0 τ n ¯ i [ 1 exp ( t ) ] } ,

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