Abstract

We show that optical second-harmonic generation can also be used as an effective surface probe with a submonolayer sensitivity for media without inversion symmetry. The adsorption of Sn on GaAs is used as an example. A detailed summary of all accessible elements of the surface nonlinear susceptibility tensor χ(2) for the various crystal faces of GaAs is provided.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. See, for example, Y. R. Shen, Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 16, 69 (1986); in Chemistry and Structure at Interfaces: New Laser and Optical Techniques, R. B. Hall, A. B. Ellis, eds. (Verlag-Chemie, Berlin, 1986), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, Phys. Rev. B 33, 8818 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. F. Heinz, M. M. T. Loy, W. A. Thompson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 63 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. See, for example, Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).
  5. See, for example, Surf. Sci. 168, 1 (1986).
  6. S. B. Zhang, M. L. Cohen, S. G. Louie, Phys. Rev. B 34, 768 (1986); Phys. Rev. B 32, 3955 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. I. G. Uhrberg, G. V. Hanson, J. M. Nickolls, S. A. Flodström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1032 (1982); F. J. Himpsel, P. Heimann, D. E. Eastman, Phys. Rev. B 24, 2003 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  8. See, for example, R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).
  9. P. Chiradia, A. Cricenti, S. Selci, G. Chiarotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1145 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Bloembergen, P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 128, 606 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. W. K. Tom, Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, Calif., 1984); T. F. Heinz, Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, Calif., 1982).
  12. P. Guyot-Sionnest, W. Chen, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 33, 12 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  13. N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, C. H. Lee, Phys. Rev. 174, 813 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. Büdgens, M. Lüth, M. Mattern-Klossau, A. Spitzer, A. Tulke, Surf. Sci. 160, 46 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1956 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (5)

See, for example, Y. R. Shen, Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 16, 69 (1986); in Chemistry and Structure at Interfaces: New Laser and Optical Techniques, R. B. Hall, A. B. Ellis, eds. (Verlag-Chemie, Berlin, 1986), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, Phys. Rev. B 33, 8818 (1986).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, Surf. Sci. 168, 1 (1986).

S. B. Zhang, M. L. Cohen, S. G. Louie, Phys. Rev. B 34, 768 (1986); Phys. Rev. B 32, 3955 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyot-Sionnest, W. Chen, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 33, 12 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (3)

T. F. Heinz, M. M. T. Loy, W. A. Thompson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 63 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Büdgens, M. Lüth, M. Mattern-Klossau, A. Spitzer, A. Tulke, Surf. Sci. 160, 46 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1956 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

P. Chiradia, A. Cricenti, S. Selci, G. Chiarotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1145 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

R. I. G. Uhrberg, G. V. Hanson, J. M. Nickolls, S. A. Flodström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1032 (1982); F. J. Himpsel, P. Heimann, D. E. Eastman, Phys. Rev. B 24, 2003 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, C. H. Lee, Phys. Rev. 174, 813 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

N. Bloembergen, P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 128, 606 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1956 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aumiller, G. D.

H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, Phys. Rev. B 33, 8818 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Azzam, R. M. A.

See, for example, R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).

Bashara, N. M.

See, for example, R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, C. H. Lee, Phys. Rev. 174, 813 (1968).
[CrossRef]

N. Bloembergen, P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 128, 606 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Büdgens, N.

N. Büdgens, M. Lüth, M. Mattern-Klossau, A. Spitzer, A. Tulke, Surf. Sci. 160, 46 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, C. H. Lee, Phys. Rev. 174, 813 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

P. Guyot-Sionnest, W. Chen, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 33, 12 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chiarotti, G.

P. Chiradia, A. Cricenti, S. Selci, G. Chiarotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1145 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chiradia, P.

P. Chiradia, A. Cricenti, S. Selci, G. Chiarotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1145 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, M. L.

S. B. Zhang, M. L. Cohen, S. G. Louie, Phys. Rev. B 34, 768 (1986); Phys. Rev. B 32, 3955 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Cricenti, A.

P. Chiradia, A. Cricenti, S. Selci, G. Chiarotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1145 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Flodström, S. A.

R. I. G. Uhrberg, G. V. Hanson, J. M. Nickolls, S. A. Flodström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1032 (1982); F. J. Himpsel, P. Heimann, D. E. Eastman, Phys. Rev. B 24, 2003 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Guyot-Sionnest, P.

P. Guyot-Sionnest, W. Chen, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 33, 12 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, G. V.

R. I. G. Uhrberg, G. V. Hanson, J. M. Nickolls, S. A. Flodström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1032 (1982); F. J. Himpsel, P. Heimann, D. E. Eastman, Phys. Rev. B 24, 2003 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

T. F. Heinz, M. M. T. Loy, W. A. Thompson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 63 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jha, S. S.

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, C. H. Lee, Phys. Rev. 174, 813 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, C. H. Lee, Phys. Rev. 174, 813 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Louie, S. G.

S. B. Zhang, M. L. Cohen, S. G. Louie, Phys. Rev. B 34, 768 (1986); Phys. Rev. B 32, 3955 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Loy, M. M. T.

T. F. Heinz, M. M. T. Loy, W. A. Thompson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 63 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lüth, M.

N. Büdgens, M. Lüth, M. Mattern-Klossau, A. Spitzer, A. Tulke, Surf. Sci. 160, 46 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mattern-Klossau, M.

N. Büdgens, M. Lüth, M. Mattern-Klossau, A. Spitzer, A. Tulke, Surf. Sci. 160, 46 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nickolls, J. M.

R. I. G. Uhrberg, G. V. Hanson, J. M. Nickolls, S. A. Flodström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1032 (1982); F. J. Himpsel, P. Heimann, D. E. Eastman, Phys. Rev. B 24, 2003 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Pershan, P. S.

N. Bloembergen, P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 128, 606 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Selci, S.

P. Chiradia, A. Cricenti, S. Selci, G. Chiarotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1145 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

See, for example, Y. R. Shen, Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 16, 69 (1986); in Chemistry and Structure at Interfaces: New Laser and Optical Techniques, R. B. Hall, A. B. Ellis, eds. (Verlag-Chemie, Berlin, 1986), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

P. Guyot-Sionnest, W. Chen, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 33, 12 (1986).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Spitzer, A.

N. Büdgens, M. Lüth, M. Mattern-Klossau, A. Spitzer, A. Tulke, Surf. Sci. 160, 46 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Studna, A. A.

D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1956 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, W. A.

T. F. Heinz, M. M. T. Loy, W. A. Thompson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 63 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tom, H. W. K.

H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, Phys. Rev. B 33, 8818 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. W. K. Tom, Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, Calif., 1984); T. F. Heinz, Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, Calif., 1982).

Tulke, A.

N. Büdgens, M. Lüth, M. Mattern-Klossau, A. Spitzer, A. Tulke, Surf. Sci. 160, 46 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Uhrberg, R. I. G.

R. I. G. Uhrberg, G. V. Hanson, J. M. Nickolls, S. A. Flodström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1032 (1982); F. J. Himpsel, P. Heimann, D. E. Eastman, Phys. Rev. B 24, 2003 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. B.

S. B. Zhang, M. L. Cohen, S. G. Louie, Phys. Rev. B 34, 768 (1986); Phys. Rev. B 32, 3955 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

See, for example, Y. R. Shen, Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 16, 69 (1986); in Chemistry and Structure at Interfaces: New Laser and Optical Techniques, R. B. Hall, A. B. Ellis, eds. (Verlag-Chemie, Berlin, 1986), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (2)

N. Bloembergen, P. S. Pershan, Phys. Rev. 128, 606 (1962).
[CrossRef]

N. Bloembergen, R. K. Chang, S. S. Jha, C. H. Lee, Phys. Rev. 174, 813 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

P. Guyot-Sionnest, W. Chen, Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 33, 12 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. W. K. Tom, G. D. Aumiller, Phys. Rev. B 33, 8818 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Zhang, M. L. Cohen, S. G. Louie, Phys. Rev. B 34, 768 (1986); Phys. Rev. B 32, 3955 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

R. I. G. Uhrberg, G. V. Hanson, J. M. Nickolls, S. A. Flodström, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1032 (1982); F. J. Himpsel, P. Heimann, D. E. Eastman, Phys. Rev. B 24, 2003 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. Chiradia, A. Cricenti, S. Selci, G. Chiarotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1145 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Heinz, M. M. T. Loy, W. A. Thompson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 63 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1956 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surf. Sci. (2)

N. Büdgens, M. Lüth, M. Mattern-Klossau, A. Spitzer, A. Tulke, Surf. Sci. 160, 46 (1985).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, Surf. Sci. 168, 1 (1986).

Other (3)

See, for example, R. M. A. Azzam, N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).

See, for example, Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).

H. W. K. Tom, Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, Calif., 1984); T. F. Heinz, Ph.D. dissertation (University of California, Berkeley, Calif., 1982).

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SH signal as a function of the time of evaporation of Sn on GaAs (100). The pinpout geometry with the (100) axis in the plane of incidence was used.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of All Nonzero [ χ surf ( 2 ) ] i , j , k for the (100), (110), and (111) Crystal Faces of GaAs and the Corresponding Experimental Geometries That Could Permit Their Determination of SHGa

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E ( 2 ω ) = 16 π i ω 2 / c 2 F ( 2 ω ) P NL ( 2 ω ) ,
P NL ( 2 ω ) = χ surf ( 2 ) : E ( ω ) E ( ω ) F s ( ω ) F s ( ω ) + χ bulk ( 2 ) : E ( ω ) E ( ω ) F b ( ω ) F b ( ω ) L eff .
F i , j , k eff = F j ( ω , θ , α ) F k ( ω , θ , α ) F i ( 2 ω , θ , β ) ,
P NL ( 2 ω ) = χ s , z z z ( 2 ) E z E z F s , z ( ω ) F s , z ( ω ) + χ s , z x x ( 2 ) E x E x F s , x ( ω ) F s , x ( ω ) + χ s , x x z ( 2 ) E x E z F s , x ( ω ) F s , z ( ω ) ,
P NL ( 2 ω ) = χ b , y x z ( 2 ) E x E z F b , x ( ω ) F b , z ( ω ) L eff .

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