Abstract

We report what is to our knowledge the first two-photon-excited fluorescence spectroscopy of atomic fluorine. Adoubled dye laser at 286 nm is Raman shifted in H2 to 170 nm (sixth anti-Stokes order) to excite ground-state 2PJ° fluorine atoms to the 2DJ° level. The fluorine atoms are detected by one of two methods: observing the fluorescencedecay to the 2PJ level or observing F+ production through the absorption of an additional photon by the excitedatoms. We have measured relative two-photon absorption cross sections to and the radiative lifetimes of the 2DJ° states.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. C. Stanton, C. E. Kolb, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 6637 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Schlossberg, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2044 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. A. A. Clyne, W. S. Nip, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 73, 1308 (1977).
  4. J. C. Cummings, D. P. Aeschliman, Opt. Commun. 31, 165 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. R. Quick, D. S. Moore, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 759 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. S. Moore, Chem. Phys. Lett. 89, 131 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. L. Loper, M. D. Tabat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 654 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. K. Bischel, B. E. Perry, D. R. Crosley, Chem. Phys. Lett. 82, 85 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Bokor, R. R. Freeman, J. C. White, R. H. Storz, Phys. Rev. A 24, 612 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. H. Muller, D. R. Eames, K. H. Burrell, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 26, 1031 (1981); P. Das, G. Ondrey, N. van Veen, R. Bersohn, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 724 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Brewer, N. Van Veen, R. Bersohn, Chem. Phys. Lett. 91, 126 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Heaven, T. A. Miller, R. R. Freeman, J. C. White, J. Bokor, Chem. Phys. Lett. 86, 458 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Brewer, P. Das, G. Ondrey, R. Bersohn, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 720 (1983); J. J. Tice, M. J. Ferris, G. W. Loge, F. B. Wompler, Chem. Phys. Lett. 96, 422 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. J. Bamford, L. E. Jusinski, W. K. Bischel, Phys. Rev. A 34, 185 (1986)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. J. Bamford, M. J. Dyer, W. K. Bischel, Phys. Rev. A 36, 3497 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. W. K. Bischel, L. E. Jusinski, Chem. Phys. Lett. 120, 337 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. K. Bischel, D. J. Bamford, M. J. Dyer, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.912 (to be published).
  18. R. P. Saxon, J. Eichler, Phys. Rev. A 34, 199 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. I. Burshtein, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 55, 464 (1983).
  20. V. Lokner, C. Vadla, V. Vujnovic, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 30, 187 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. Baruschka, E. Schulz-Gulde, Astron. Astrophys. 44, 335 (1980).
  22. R. D. Bengtson, M. H. Miller, D. W. Koopman, T. D. Wilkerson, Phys. Rev. A 3, 16 (1971).
    [CrossRef]

1987

D. J. Bamford, M. J. Dyer, W. K. Bischel, Phys. Rev. A 36, 3497 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

D. J. Bamford, L. E. Jusinski, W. K. Bischel, Phys. Rev. A 34, 185 (1986)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Saxon, J. Eichler, Phys. Rev. A 34, 199 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

W. K. Bischel, L. E. Jusinski, Chem. Phys. Lett. 120, 337 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Loper, M. D. Tabat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 654 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983

P. Brewer, P. Das, G. Ondrey, R. Bersohn, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 720 (1983); J. J. Tice, M. J. Ferris, G. W. Loge, F. B. Wompler, Chem. Phys. Lett. 96, 422 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Quick, D. S. Moore, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 759 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Burshtein, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 55, 464 (1983).

V. Lokner, C. Vadla, V. Vujnovic, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 30, 187 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

D. S. Moore, Chem. Phys. Lett. 89, 131 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. Brewer, N. Van Veen, R. Bersohn, Chem. Phys. Lett. 91, 126 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Heaven, T. A. Miller, R. R. Freeman, J. C. White, J. Bokor, Chem. Phys. Lett. 86, 458 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

W. K. Bischel, B. E. Perry, D. R. Crosley, Chem. Phys. Lett. 82, 85 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Bokor, R. R. Freeman, J. C. White, R. H. Storz, Phys. Rev. A 24, 612 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Muller, D. R. Eames, K. H. Burrell, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 26, 1031 (1981); P. Das, G. Ondrey, N. van Veen, R. Bersohn, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 724 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980

A. C. Stanton, C. E. Kolb, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 6637 (1980).
[CrossRef]

G. Baruschka, E. Schulz-Gulde, Astron. Astrophys. 44, 335 (1980).

1979

J. C. Cummings, D. P. Aeschliman, Opt. Commun. 31, 165 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977

M. A. A. Clyne, W. S. Nip, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 73, 1308 (1977).

1976

H. Schlossberg, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2044 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1971

R. D. Bengtson, M. H. Miller, D. W. Koopman, T. D. Wilkerson, Phys. Rev. A 3, 16 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Aeschliman, D. P.

J. C. Cummings, D. P. Aeschliman, Opt. Commun. 31, 165 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bamford, D. J.

D. J. Bamford, M. J. Dyer, W. K. Bischel, Phys. Rev. A 36, 3497 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Bamford, L. E. Jusinski, W. K. Bischel, Phys. Rev. A 34, 185 (1986)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. K. Bischel, D. J. Bamford, M. J. Dyer, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.912 (to be published).

Baruschka, G.

G. Baruschka, E. Schulz-Gulde, Astron. Astrophys. 44, 335 (1980).

Bengtson, R. D.

R. D. Bengtson, M. H. Miller, D. W. Koopman, T. D. Wilkerson, Phys. Rev. A 3, 16 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Bersohn, R.

P. Brewer, P. Das, G. Ondrey, R. Bersohn, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 720 (1983); J. J. Tice, M. J. Ferris, G. W. Loge, F. B. Wompler, Chem. Phys. Lett. 96, 422 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. Brewer, N. Van Veen, R. Bersohn, Chem. Phys. Lett. 91, 126 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bischel, W. K.

D. J. Bamford, M. J. Dyer, W. K. Bischel, Phys. Rev. A 36, 3497 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Bamford, L. E. Jusinski, W. K. Bischel, Phys. Rev. A 34, 185 (1986)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. K. Bischel, L. E. Jusinski, Chem. Phys. Lett. 120, 337 (1985).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Bischel, B. E. Perry, D. R. Crosley, Chem. Phys. Lett. 82, 85 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Bischel, D. J. Bamford, M. J. Dyer, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.912 (to be published).

Bokor, J.

M. Heaven, T. A. Miller, R. R. Freeman, J. C. White, J. Bokor, Chem. Phys. Lett. 86, 458 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Bokor, R. R. Freeman, J. C. White, R. H. Storz, Phys. Rev. A 24, 612 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Brewer, P.

P. Brewer, P. Das, G. Ondrey, R. Bersohn, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 720 (1983); J. J. Tice, M. J. Ferris, G. W. Loge, F. B. Wompler, Chem. Phys. Lett. 96, 422 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. Brewer, N. Van Veen, R. Bersohn, Chem. Phys. Lett. 91, 126 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Burrell, K. H.

C. H. Muller, D. R. Eames, K. H. Burrell, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 26, 1031 (1981); P. Das, G. Ondrey, N. van Veen, R. Bersohn, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 724 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Burshtein, M. I.

M. I. Burshtein, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 55, 464 (1983).

Clyne, M. A. A.

M. A. A. Clyne, W. S. Nip, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 73, 1308 (1977).

Crosley, D. R.

W. K. Bischel, B. E. Perry, D. R. Crosley, Chem. Phys. Lett. 82, 85 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Cummings, J. C.

J. C. Cummings, D. P. Aeschliman, Opt. Commun. 31, 165 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Das, P.

P. Brewer, P. Das, G. Ondrey, R. Bersohn, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 720 (1983); J. J. Tice, M. J. Ferris, G. W. Loge, F. B. Wompler, Chem. Phys. Lett. 96, 422 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, M. J.

D. J. Bamford, M. J. Dyer, W. K. Bischel, Phys. Rev. A 36, 3497 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. K. Bischel, D. J. Bamford, M. J. Dyer, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.912 (to be published).

Eames, D. R.

C. H. Muller, D. R. Eames, K. H. Burrell, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 26, 1031 (1981); P. Das, G. Ondrey, N. van Veen, R. Bersohn, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 724 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Eichler, J.

R. P. Saxon, J. Eichler, Phys. Rev. A 34, 199 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freeman, R. R.

M. Heaven, T. A. Miller, R. R. Freeman, J. C. White, J. Bokor, Chem. Phys. Lett. 86, 458 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Bokor, R. R. Freeman, J. C. White, R. H. Storz, Phys. Rev. A 24, 612 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Heaven, M.

M. Heaven, T. A. Miller, R. R. Freeman, J. C. White, J. Bokor, Chem. Phys. Lett. 86, 458 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jusinski, L. E.

D. J. Bamford, L. E. Jusinski, W. K. Bischel, Phys. Rev. A 34, 185 (1986)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. K. Bischel, L. E. Jusinski, Chem. Phys. Lett. 120, 337 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kolb, C. E.

A. C. Stanton, C. E. Kolb, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 6637 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Koopman, D. W.

R. D. Bengtson, M. H. Miller, D. W. Koopman, T. D. Wilkerson, Phys. Rev. A 3, 16 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lokner, V.

V. Lokner, C. Vadla, V. Vujnovic, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 30, 187 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Loper, G. L.

G. L. Loper, M. D. Tabat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 654 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Miller, M. H.

R. D. Bengtson, M. H. Miller, D. W. Koopman, T. D. Wilkerson, Phys. Rev. A 3, 16 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Miller, T. A.

M. Heaven, T. A. Miller, R. R. Freeman, J. C. White, J. Bokor, Chem. Phys. Lett. 86, 458 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Moore, D. S.

C. R. Quick, D. S. Moore, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 759 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Moore, Chem. Phys. Lett. 89, 131 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Muller, C. H.

C. H. Muller, D. R. Eames, K. H. Burrell, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 26, 1031 (1981); P. Das, G. Ondrey, N. van Veen, R. Bersohn, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 724 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nip, W. S.

M. A. A. Clyne, W. S. Nip, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 73, 1308 (1977).

Ondrey, G.

P. Brewer, P. Das, G. Ondrey, R. Bersohn, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 720 (1983); J. J. Tice, M. J. Ferris, G. W. Loge, F. B. Wompler, Chem. Phys. Lett. 96, 422 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Perry, B. E.

W. K. Bischel, B. E. Perry, D. R. Crosley, Chem. Phys. Lett. 82, 85 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Quick, C. R.

C. R. Quick, D. S. Moore, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 759 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Saxon, R. P.

R. P. Saxon, J. Eichler, Phys. Rev. A 34, 199 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlossberg, H.

H. Schlossberg, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2044 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Schulz-Gulde, E.

G. Baruschka, E. Schulz-Gulde, Astron. Astrophys. 44, 335 (1980).

Stanton, A. C.

A. C. Stanton, C. E. Kolb, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 6637 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Storz, R. H.

J. Bokor, R. R. Freeman, J. C. White, R. H. Storz, Phys. Rev. A 24, 612 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tabat, M. D.

G. L. Loper, M. D. Tabat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 654 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Vadla, C.

V. Lokner, C. Vadla, V. Vujnovic, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 30, 187 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Van Veen, N.

P. Brewer, N. Van Veen, R. Bersohn, Chem. Phys. Lett. 91, 126 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Vujnovic, V.

V. Lokner, C. Vadla, V. Vujnovic, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 30, 187 (1983).
[CrossRef]

White, J. C.

M. Heaven, T. A. Miller, R. R. Freeman, J. C. White, J. Bokor, Chem. Phys. Lett. 86, 458 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Bokor, R. R. Freeman, J. C. White, R. H. Storz, Phys. Rev. A 24, 612 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wilkerson, T. D.

R. D. Bengtson, M. H. Miller, D. W. Koopman, T. D. Wilkerson, Phys. Rev. A 3, 16 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. L. Loper, M. D. Tabat, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 654 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys.

G. Baruschka, E. Schulz-Gulde, Astron. Astrophys. 44, 335 (1980).

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc.

C. H. Muller, D. R. Eames, K. H. Burrell, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 26, 1031 (1981); P. Das, G. Ondrey, N. van Veen, R. Bersohn, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 724 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

P. Brewer, N. Van Veen, R. Bersohn, Chem. Phys. Lett. 91, 126 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Heaven, T. A. Miller, R. R. Freeman, J. C. White, J. Bokor, Chem. Phys. Lett. 86, 458 (1982).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Bischel, B. E. Perry, D. R. Crosley, Chem. Phys. Lett. 82, 85 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Bischel, L. E. Jusinski, Chem. Phys. Lett. 120, 337 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Moore, Chem. Phys. Lett. 89, 131 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Schlossberg, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 2044 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

A. C. Stanton, C. E. Kolb, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 6637 (1980).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Quick, D. S. Moore, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 759 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. Brewer, P. Das, G. Ondrey, R. Bersohn, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 720 (1983); J. J. Tice, M. J. Ferris, G. W. Loge, F. B. Wompler, Chem. Phys. Lett. 96, 422 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2

M. A. A. Clyne, W. S. Nip, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 73, 1308 (1977).

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

V. Lokner, C. Vadla, V. Vujnovic, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 30, 187 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

J. C. Cummings, D. P. Aeschliman, Opt. Commun. 31, 165 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR)

M. I. Burshtein, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 55, 464 (1983).

Phys. Rev. A

R. P. Saxon, J. Eichler, Phys. Rev. A 34, 199 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bokor, R. R. Freeman, J. C. White, R. H. Storz, Phys. Rev. A 24, 612 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bamford, L. E. Jusinski, W. K. Bischel, Phys. Rev. A 34, 185 (1986)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Bamford, M. J. Dyer, W. K. Bischel, Phys. Rev. A 36, 3497 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Bengtson, M. H. Miller, D. W. Koopman, T. D. Wilkerson, Phys. Rev. A 3, 16 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. K. Bischel, D. J. Bamford, M. J. Dyer, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.912 (to be published).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

F-atom excited states relevant to the two-photon detection technique.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental apparatus for the two-photon excitation of atomic F followed by the detection of ionization and fluorescence.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative fluorescence intensity at 776 and 780 nm as a function of laser frequency following the two-photon excitation of the 2 D J ° excited state. Three peaks are observed at this sensitivity level corresponding to transitions among the four states illustrated in Fig. 1.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary for Measurements of Atomic Fluorine Two-Photon Absorption Cross Sections for the Transitions 2 D 5 / 2 , 3 / 2 ° 2 P 3 / 2 , 1 / 2 °

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ 0 ( 2 ) ( J J ) = F 2 J + 1 M | M L L M L S ( M M L ) | J M L M L S ( M M L ) | J M A L L ( M L ) | 2 ,
A L L ( M L = k L M L | z | k k | z | L M L E L M L E k + ћ ω ,

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