Abstract

We describe a simple experimental arrangement for emission tomographic measurements of radicals in flames. Experimental determinations of two-dimensional spatially resolved distributions of excited-state CH in atmospheric-pressure flames are presented. Calibration of the distributions to absolute number densities is performed with a Rayleigh scattering technique. Methods for simultaneous recording of two to six emission projections and reconstruction from very few (two or three) projections are experimentally investigated. The potential of emission tomography with high temporal resolution for monitoring, e.g., explosions or turbulent flames, is discussed.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Ed. D. R. Crosley, Laser Probes for Combustion Chemistry, ACS Symposium Series (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1980).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Special Issue on Computerized Tomography, Proc. IEEE 71(3) (1983).
  3. H. M. Hertz, Opt. Commun. 54, 131 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. W. Faris, R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 12, 155 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. Alwang, L. Cavanaugh, R. Burr, A. Hauer, Item 1, Final Rep. PWA-3942 [NAVAIR (Air-602) Contract] (Pratt and Whitney, East Hartford, Conn., 1970).
  6. P. J. Emmerman, R. Goulard, R. J. Santoro, H. G. SemerjianJ. Energy 4, 70 (1980).
  7. T. F. Budinger, G. T. Gullbert, R. H. Huesman, in Image Reconstruction from Projections: Implementation and Applications, G. T. Herman, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1979), p. 147.
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. N. Bracewell, Aust. J. Phys. 9, 198 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. N. Olsen, C. D. Maldonado, G. D. Duckworth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 8, 1419 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Uchiyama, M. Nakajima, S. Yuta, Appl. Opt. 24, 4111 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. G. Joklik, J. W. Daily, W. J. Pitz, in Twenty-First Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., to be published).
  12. D. Reuter, B. R. Daniel, J. Jagoda, B. T. Zinn, Combust. Flame 65, 281 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. R. Ray, H. G. Semerjian, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), paper TUB4.
  14. R. Snyder, L. Hesselink, Opt. Lett. 13, 87 (1988); S. Sato, in Proceedings of International Energy Agency (IEA) 5th Task Leaders Meeting (IEA, Paris, 1983), p. 157.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G. W. Faris, R. L. Byer, “Three-dimensional beam-deflection optical tomography of a supersonic jet,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).
  16. H. M. Hertz, M. Aldén, Appl. Phys. B 45, 33 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. D’Alessio, A. Di Lorenzo, A. Borghese, F. Beretta, S. Masi, in Sixteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1976), p. 695.
  18. M. Aldén, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, Appl. Phys. B 29, 93 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. M. Hertz, Appl. Opt. 25, 914 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. G. Minerbo, Comput. Graph. Image Process. 10, 48 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Bleekrode, W. C. Nieuwpoort, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 3680 (1965).
    [CrossRef]

1988 (2)

1987 (1)

1986 (2)

H. M. Hertz, Appl. Opt. 25, 914 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Reuter, B. R. Daniel, J. Jagoda, B. T. Zinn, Combust. Flame 65, 281 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

1983 (1)

Special Issue on Computerized Tomography, Proc. IEEE 71(3) (1983).

1982 (1)

M. Aldén, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, Appl. Phys. B 29, 93 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

P. J. Emmerman, R. Goulard, R. J. Santoro, H. G. SemerjianJ. Energy 4, 70 (1980).

1979 (1)

G. Minerbo, Comput. Graph. Image Process. 10, 48 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

H. N. Olsen, C. D. Maldonado, G. D. Duckworth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 8, 1419 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

R. Bleekrode, W. C. Nieuwpoort, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 3680 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

R. N. Bracewell, Aust. J. Phys. 9, 198 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Aldén, M.

H. M. Hertz, M. Aldén, Appl. Phys. B 45, 33 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, Appl. Phys. B 29, 93 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Alwang, W.

W. Alwang, L. Cavanaugh, R. Burr, A. Hauer, Item 1, Final Rep. PWA-3942 [NAVAIR (Air-602) Contract] (Pratt and Whitney, East Hartford, Conn., 1970).

Beretta, F.

A. D’Alessio, A. Di Lorenzo, A. Borghese, F. Beretta, S. Masi, in Sixteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1976), p. 695.

Bleekrode, R.

R. Bleekrode, W. C. Nieuwpoort, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 3680 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Borghese, A.

A. D’Alessio, A. Di Lorenzo, A. Borghese, F. Beretta, S. Masi, in Sixteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1976), p. 695.

Bracewell, R. N.

R. N. Bracewell, Aust. J. Phys. 9, 198 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Budinger, T. F.

T. F. Budinger, G. T. Gullbert, R. H. Huesman, in Image Reconstruction from Projections: Implementation and Applications, G. T. Herman, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1979), p. 147.
[CrossRef]

Burr, R.

W. Alwang, L. Cavanaugh, R. Burr, A. Hauer, Item 1, Final Rep. PWA-3942 [NAVAIR (Air-602) Contract] (Pratt and Whitney, East Hartford, Conn., 1970).

Byer, R. L.

G. W. Faris, R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 12, 155 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Faris, R. L. Byer, “Three-dimensional beam-deflection optical tomography of a supersonic jet,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Cavanaugh, L.

W. Alwang, L. Cavanaugh, R. Burr, A. Hauer, Item 1, Final Rep. PWA-3942 [NAVAIR (Air-602) Contract] (Pratt and Whitney, East Hartford, Conn., 1970).

D’Alessio, A.

A. D’Alessio, A. Di Lorenzo, A. Borghese, F. Beretta, S. Masi, in Sixteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1976), p. 695.

Daily, J. W.

R. G. Joklik, J. W. Daily, W. J. Pitz, in Twenty-First Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., to be published).

Daniel, B. R.

D. Reuter, B. R. Daniel, J. Jagoda, B. T. Zinn, Combust. Flame 65, 281 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Di Lorenzo, A.

A. D’Alessio, A. Di Lorenzo, A. Borghese, F. Beretta, S. Masi, in Sixteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1976), p. 695.

Duckworth, G. D.

H. N. Olsen, C. D. Maldonado, G. D. Duckworth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 8, 1419 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Edner, H.

M. Aldén, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, Appl. Phys. B 29, 93 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Emmerman, P. J.

P. J. Emmerman, R. Goulard, R. J. Santoro, H. G. SemerjianJ. Energy 4, 70 (1980).

Faris, G. W.

G. W. Faris, R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 12, 155 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Faris, R. L. Byer, “Three-dimensional beam-deflection optical tomography of a supersonic jet,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

Goulard, R.

P. J. Emmerman, R. Goulard, R. J. Santoro, H. G. SemerjianJ. Energy 4, 70 (1980).

Gullbert, G. T.

T. F. Budinger, G. T. Gullbert, R. H. Huesman, in Image Reconstruction from Projections: Implementation and Applications, G. T. Herman, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1979), p. 147.
[CrossRef]

Hauer, A.

W. Alwang, L. Cavanaugh, R. Burr, A. Hauer, Item 1, Final Rep. PWA-3942 [NAVAIR (Air-602) Contract] (Pratt and Whitney, East Hartford, Conn., 1970).

Hertz, H. M.

H. M. Hertz, M. Aldén, Appl. Phys. B 45, 33 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Hertz, Appl. Opt. 25, 914 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Hertz, Opt. Commun. 54, 131 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hesselink, L.

Huesman, R. H.

T. F. Budinger, G. T. Gullbert, R. H. Huesman, in Image Reconstruction from Projections: Implementation and Applications, G. T. Herman, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1979), p. 147.
[CrossRef]

Jagoda, J.

D. Reuter, B. R. Daniel, J. Jagoda, B. T. Zinn, Combust. Flame 65, 281 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Joklik, R. G.

R. G. Joklik, J. W. Daily, W. J. Pitz, in Twenty-First Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., to be published).

Maldonado, C. D.

H. N. Olsen, C. D. Maldonado, G. D. Duckworth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 8, 1419 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Masi, S.

A. D’Alessio, A. Di Lorenzo, A. Borghese, F. Beretta, S. Masi, in Sixteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1976), p. 695.

Minerbo, G.

G. Minerbo, Comput. Graph. Image Process. 10, 48 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, M.

Nieuwpoort, W. C.

R. Bleekrode, W. C. Nieuwpoort, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 3680 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Olsen, H. N.

H. N. Olsen, C. D. Maldonado, G. D. Duckworth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 8, 1419 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Pitz, W. J.

R. G. Joklik, J. W. Daily, W. J. Pitz, in Twenty-First Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., to be published).

Ray, S. R.

S. R. Ray, H. G. Semerjian, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), paper TUB4.

Reuter, D.

D. Reuter, B. R. Daniel, J. Jagoda, B. T. Zinn, Combust. Flame 65, 281 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Santoro, R. J.

P. J. Emmerman, R. Goulard, R. J. Santoro, H. G. SemerjianJ. Energy 4, 70 (1980).

Semerjian, H. G.

P. J. Emmerman, R. Goulard, R. J. Santoro, H. G. SemerjianJ. Energy 4, 70 (1980).

S. R. Ray, H. G. Semerjian, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), paper TUB4.

Snyder, R.

Svanberg, S.

M. Aldén, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, Appl. Phys. B 29, 93 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Uchiyama, H.

Yuta, S.

Zinn, B. T.

D. Reuter, B. R. Daniel, J. Jagoda, B. T. Zinn, Combust. Flame 65, 281 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

H. M. Hertz, M. Aldén, Appl. Phys. B 45, 33 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Aldén, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, Appl. Phys. B 29, 93 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Aust. J. Phys. (1)

R. N. Bracewell, Aust. J. Phys. 9, 198 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame (1)

D. Reuter, B. R. Daniel, J. Jagoda, B. T. Zinn, Combust. Flame 65, 281 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Graph. Image Process. (1)

G. Minerbo, Comput. Graph. Image Process. 10, 48 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

R. Bleekrode, W. C. Nieuwpoort, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 3680 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Energy (1)

P. J. Emmerman, R. Goulard, R. J. Santoro, H. G. SemerjianJ. Energy 4, 70 (1980).

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer (1)

H. N. Olsen, C. D. Maldonado, G. D. Duckworth, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Transfer 8, 1419 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. M. Hertz, Opt. Commun. 54, 131 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. IEEE (1)

Special Issue on Computerized Tomography, Proc. IEEE 71(3) (1983).

Other (7)

Ed. D. R. Crosley, Laser Probes for Combustion Chemistry, ACS Symposium Series (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1980).
[CrossRef]

W. Alwang, L. Cavanaugh, R. Burr, A. Hauer, Item 1, Final Rep. PWA-3942 [NAVAIR (Air-602) Contract] (Pratt and Whitney, East Hartford, Conn., 1970).

R. G. Joklik, J. W. Daily, W. J. Pitz, in Twenty-First Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., to be published).

T. F. Budinger, G. T. Gullbert, R. H. Huesman, in Image Reconstruction from Projections: Implementation and Applications, G. T. Herman, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1979), p. 147.
[CrossRef]

S. R. Ray, H. G. Semerjian, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), paper TUB4.

G. W. Faris, R. L. Byer, “Three-dimensional beam-deflection optical tomography of a supersonic jet,” Appl. Opt. (to be published).

A. D’Alessio, A. Di Lorenzo, A. Borghese, F. Beretta, S. Masi, in Sixteenth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1976), p. 695.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement for (a) sequential recording of projections and (b) simultaneous recording of three projections with an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Tomographic reconstruction of the CH emission of a premixed methane–oxygen flame near the burner. Each pixel is 120 μm × 120 μm. Eight sequentially recorded projections were used.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Tomographic reconstruction of the CH emission of a slot Bunsen flame ~25 mm above the burner. Each pixel is 0.53 mm × 0.53 mm. Three simultaneously recorded projections were used.

Equations (1)

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P = C A h ν V Ω 4 π n ,

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