Abstract

The emission spectrum of air that is excited by an ArF laser has been investigated experimentally and theoretically to determine the conditions under which fluorescence from O2 can be used for the measurement of temperature in aerodynamic flows. In addition to the expected fluorescence from O2, the spectrum from excitation with an intense laser beam is shown to contain significant contributions from the near-resonant Raman fundamental and overtone bands, the four-photon fluorescence excitation of C produced from ambient CO2, and possibly the three-photon excitation of O2+. The nature of the radiative interactions contributing to these additional features is described.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. A. Massey, C. J. Lemon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 454 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. P. Lee, P. H. Paul, R. K. Hanson, Opt. Lett. 11, 7 (1986); Opt. Lett. 12, 75 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. P. Lee, R. K. Hanson, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 36, 425 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Ackerman, F. Biaume, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 35, 73 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Herzberg, Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand, New York, 1950), pp. 20, 21, 92, 106, 107, 124–126, 141, 208, 221–225, 240–245.
  6. W. M. Huo, C. W. Bauschlicher, presented at 8th Annual West Coast Theoretical Chemistry Conference, location, March 26, 1986.
  7. W. M. Huo, C. W. Bauschlicher, “Rotational dependence of the Schumann–Runge band oscillator strengths of O2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. (to be submitted).
  8. P. H. Krupenie, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 1, 423 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Yoshino, D. E. Freeman, J. R. Esmond, W. H. Parkinson, Planet. Space Sci. 31, 339 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Shibuya, F. Stuhl, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1184 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. A. Long, Raman Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977).
  12. D. M. Bishop, L. M. Cheng, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 5125 (1980); W. M. Huo, G. C. Herring, W. K. Bischel, “Vibrational Raman cross sections of the fundamental and overtone transitions in H2, D2, and N2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. (to be submitted).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, National Stand. Ref. Data Ser. 35, 1 (1971).
  14. P. Harteck, R. R. Reeves, B. A. Thompson, NASA document TN D-1984 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., June1963).
  15. J. Bokor, J. Zavelovich, C.K. Rhodes, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 965 (1980).
    [CrossRef]

1986

M. P. Lee, R. K. Hanson, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 36, 425 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Lee, P. H. Paul, R. K. Hanson, Opt. Lett. 11, 7 (1986); Opt. Lett. 12, 75 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

G. A. Massey, C. J. Lemon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 454 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

K. Yoshino, D. E. Freeman, J. R. Esmond, W. H. Parkinson, Planet. Space Sci. 31, 339 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

K. Shibuya, F. Stuhl, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1184 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980

D. M. Bishop, L. M. Cheng, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 5125 (1980); W. M. Huo, G. C. Herring, W. K. Bischel, “Vibrational Raman cross sections of the fundamental and overtone transitions in H2, D2, and N2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. (to be submitted).
[CrossRef]

J. Bokor, J. Zavelovich, C.K. Rhodes, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 965 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1972

P. H. Krupenie, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 1, 423 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971

C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, National Stand. Ref. Data Ser. 35, 1 (1971).

1970

M. Ackerman, F. Biaume, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 35, 73 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, M.

M. Ackerman, F. Biaume, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 35, 73 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bauschlicher, C. W.

W. M. Huo, C. W. Bauschlicher, “Rotational dependence of the Schumann–Runge band oscillator strengths of O2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. (to be submitted).

W. M. Huo, C. W. Bauschlicher, presented at 8th Annual West Coast Theoretical Chemistry Conference, location, March 26, 1986.

Biaume, F.

M. Ackerman, F. Biaume, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 35, 73 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bishop, D. M.

D. M. Bishop, L. M. Cheng, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 5125 (1980); W. M. Huo, G. C. Herring, W. K. Bischel, “Vibrational Raman cross sections of the fundamental and overtone transitions in H2, D2, and N2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. (to be submitted).
[CrossRef]

Bokor, J.

J. Bokor, J. Zavelovich, C.K. Rhodes, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 965 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, L. M.

D. M. Bishop, L. M. Cheng, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 5125 (1980); W. M. Huo, G. C. Herring, W. K. Bischel, “Vibrational Raman cross sections of the fundamental and overtone transitions in H2, D2, and N2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. (to be submitted).
[CrossRef]

Esmond, J. R.

K. Yoshino, D. E. Freeman, J. R. Esmond, W. H. Parkinson, Planet. Space Sci. 31, 339 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, D. E.

K. Yoshino, D. E. Freeman, J. R. Esmond, W. H. Parkinson, Planet. Space Sci. 31, 339 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, R. K.

M. P. Lee, R. K. Hanson, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 36, 425 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Lee, P. H. Paul, R. K. Hanson, Opt. Lett. 11, 7 (1986); Opt. Lett. 12, 75 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harteck, P.

P. Harteck, R. R. Reeves, B. A. Thompson, NASA document TN D-1984 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., June1963).

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand, New York, 1950), pp. 20, 21, 92, 106, 107, 124–126, 141, 208, 221–225, 240–245.

Huo, W. M.

W. M. Huo, C. W. Bauschlicher, presented at 8th Annual West Coast Theoretical Chemistry Conference, location, March 26, 1986.

W. M. Huo, C. W. Bauschlicher, “Rotational dependence of the Schumann–Runge band oscillator strengths of O2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. (to be submitted).

Krupenie, P. H.

P. H. Krupenie, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 1, 423 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. P.

M. P. Lee, P. H. Paul, R. K. Hanson, Opt. Lett. 11, 7 (1986); Opt. Lett. 12, 75 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Lee, R. K. Hanson, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 36, 425 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lemon, C. J.

G. A. Massey, C. J. Lemon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 454 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Long, D. A.

D. A. Long, Raman Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977).

Massey, G. A.

G. A. Massey, C. J. Lemon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 454 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Moore, C. E.

C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, National Stand. Ref. Data Ser. 35, 1 (1971).

Parkinson, W. H.

K. Yoshino, D. E. Freeman, J. R. Esmond, W. H. Parkinson, Planet. Space Sci. 31, 339 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Paul, P. H.

Reeves, R. R.

P. Harteck, R. R. Reeves, B. A. Thompson, NASA document TN D-1984 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., June1963).

Rhodes, C.K.

J. Bokor, J. Zavelovich, C.K. Rhodes, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 965 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Shibuya, K.

K. Shibuya, F. Stuhl, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1184 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Stuhl, F.

K. Shibuya, F. Stuhl, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1184 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, B. A.

P. Harteck, R. R. Reeves, B. A. Thompson, NASA document TN D-1984 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., June1963).

Yoshino, K.

K. Yoshino, D. E. Freeman, J. R. Esmond, W. H. Parkinson, Planet. Space Sci. 31, 339 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Zavelovich, J.

J. Bokor, J. Zavelovich, C.K. Rhodes, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 965 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

G. A. Massey, C. J. Lemon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 454 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

D. M. Bishop, L. M. Cheng, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 5125 (1980); W. M. Huo, G. C. Herring, W. K. Bischel, “Vibrational Raman cross sections of the fundamental and overtone transitions in H2, D2, and N2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. (to be submitted).
[CrossRef]

J. Bokor, J. Zavelovich, C.K. Rhodes, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 965 (1980).
[CrossRef]

K. Shibuya, F. Stuhl, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1184 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc.

M. Ackerman, F. Biaume, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 35, 73 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data

P. H. Krupenie, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 1, 423 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

M. P. Lee, R. K. Hanson, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 36, 425 (1986).
[CrossRef]

National Stand. Ref. Data Ser.

C. E. Moore, Atomic Energy Levels, National Stand. Ref. Data Ser. 35, 1 (1971).

Opt. Lett.

Planet. Space Sci.

K. Yoshino, D. E. Freeman, J. R. Esmond, W. H. Parkinson, Planet. Space Sci. 31, 339 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. A. Long, Raman Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977).

G. Herzberg, Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand, New York, 1950), pp. 20, 21, 92, 106, 107, 124–126, 141, 208, 221–225, 240–245.

W. M. Huo, C. W. Bauschlicher, presented at 8th Annual West Coast Theoretical Chemistry Conference, location, March 26, 1986.

W. M. Huo, C. W. Bauschlicher, “Rotational dependence of the Schumann–Runge band oscillator strengths of O2,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. (to be submitted).

P. Harteck, R. R. Reeves, B. A. Thompson, NASA document TN D-1984 (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., June1963).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Emission spectrum from room air (T = 25°C) excited by a broadband, 40-mJ/pulse ArF laser passing through 25 cm of air and focused to 24 × 0.1 mm. Δυ indicates the vibrational quantum-number difference between the initial state and the final state of the excitation fluorescence process. (a) Experimental spectrum, (b) theoretical spectrum. The monochromator spectral efficiency (dashed line) was included in the calculation together with a 0.25-nm (FWHM) slit function.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental emission from room air excited by a 33-mJ/pulse laser focused to 50 μm × 100 μm. Wavelengths of O2+ fluorescence transitions are also shown for Δυ = 1–7 from υ″ = 0–3.

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