Abstract

An experiment is described in which the instantaneous three-dimensional gas-concentration distributions in turbulent jets and flames were recorded. A resonant scanning mirror was used to sweep a laser sheet through the volume of a flow field. During the 1.4-μsec duration of the laser pulse, an electronic framing camera imaged the scattered light from the gas in as many as 12 parallel planes within the flow. A two-dimensional charge-coupled-device array was used to digitize the images from the framing camera in real time. The measurement period was brief enough to freeze the motion of the gas.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Jiminez, M. Cogollos, L. P. Bernal, J. Fluid Mech. 152, 125 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Hesselink, J. Pender, S. M. Jaffey, K. Dutta, in Flow Visualization III, W. J. Yang, ed. (Hemisphere, Washington, D.C., 1985), p. 295.
  3. M. K. Lynch, P. Miller, C. Lewis, D. M. Nosenchuck, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 30, 1751 (1985).
  4. B. Yip, J. K. Lam, M. Winter, M. B. Long, Science 235, 1209 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. K. Hanson, in Proceedings of the 21st Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986).
  6. M. C. Escoda, M. B. Long, AIAA J. 21, 81 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. A. Noyes, G. B. Porter, J. E. Jolley, Chem. Rev. 56, 49 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. G. Anderson, C. S. Parmenter, J. Chem. Phys. 52, 466 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. W. Sidebottom, C. C. Badcock, J. G. Calvert, B. R. Rabe, E. K. Ramon, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 13 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. C. Badcock, H. W. Sidebottom, J. G. Calvert, B. R. Rabe, E. K. Ramon, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 19 (1972).
    [CrossRef]

1987 (1)

B. Yip, J. K. Lam, M. Winter, M. B. Long, Science 235, 1209 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

J. Jiminez, M. Cogollos, L. P. Bernal, J. Fluid Mech. 152, 125 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Lynch, P. Miller, C. Lewis, D. M. Nosenchuck, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 30, 1751 (1985).

1983 (1)

M. C. Escoda, M. B. Long, AIAA J. 21, 81 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1972 (2)

H. W. Sidebottom, C. C. Badcock, J. G. Calvert, B. R. Rabe, E. K. Ramon, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 13 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Badcock, H. W. Sidebottom, J. G. Calvert, B. R. Rabe, E. K. Ramon, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 19 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

L. G. Anderson, C. S. Parmenter, J. Chem. Phys. 52, 466 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

W. A. Noyes, G. B. Porter, J. E. Jolley, Chem. Rev. 56, 49 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, L. G.

L. G. Anderson, C. S. Parmenter, J. Chem. Phys. 52, 466 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Badcock, C. C.

H. W. Sidebottom, C. C. Badcock, J. G. Calvert, B. R. Rabe, E. K. Ramon, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 13 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Badcock, H. W. Sidebottom, J. G. Calvert, B. R. Rabe, E. K. Ramon, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 19 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bernal, L. P.

J. Jiminez, M. Cogollos, L. P. Bernal, J. Fluid Mech. 152, 125 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Calvert, J. G.

C. C. Badcock, H. W. Sidebottom, J. G. Calvert, B. R. Rabe, E. K. Ramon, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 19 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Sidebottom, C. C. Badcock, J. G. Calvert, B. R. Rabe, E. K. Ramon, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 13 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cogollos, M.

J. Jiminez, M. Cogollos, L. P. Bernal, J. Fluid Mech. 152, 125 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, K.

L. Hesselink, J. Pender, S. M. Jaffey, K. Dutta, in Flow Visualization III, W. J. Yang, ed. (Hemisphere, Washington, D.C., 1985), p. 295.

Escoda, M. C.

M. C. Escoda, M. B. Long, AIAA J. 21, 81 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, R. K.

R. K. Hanson, in Proceedings of the 21st Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986).

Hesselink, L.

L. Hesselink, J. Pender, S. M. Jaffey, K. Dutta, in Flow Visualization III, W. J. Yang, ed. (Hemisphere, Washington, D.C., 1985), p. 295.

Jaffey, S. M.

L. Hesselink, J. Pender, S. M. Jaffey, K. Dutta, in Flow Visualization III, W. J. Yang, ed. (Hemisphere, Washington, D.C., 1985), p. 295.

Jiminez, J.

J. Jiminez, M. Cogollos, L. P. Bernal, J. Fluid Mech. 152, 125 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Jolley, J. E.

W. A. Noyes, G. B. Porter, J. E. Jolley, Chem. Rev. 56, 49 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Lam, J. K.

B. Yip, J. K. Lam, M. Winter, M. B. Long, Science 235, 1209 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, C.

M. K. Lynch, P. Miller, C. Lewis, D. M. Nosenchuck, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 30, 1751 (1985).

Long, M. B.

B. Yip, J. K. Lam, M. Winter, M. B. Long, Science 235, 1209 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Escoda, M. B. Long, AIAA J. 21, 81 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lynch, M. K.

M. K. Lynch, P. Miller, C. Lewis, D. M. Nosenchuck, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 30, 1751 (1985).

Miller, P.

M. K. Lynch, P. Miller, C. Lewis, D. M. Nosenchuck, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 30, 1751 (1985).

Nosenchuck, D. M.

M. K. Lynch, P. Miller, C. Lewis, D. M. Nosenchuck, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 30, 1751 (1985).

Noyes, W. A.

W. A. Noyes, G. B. Porter, J. E. Jolley, Chem. Rev. 56, 49 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Parmenter, C. S.

L. G. Anderson, C. S. Parmenter, J. Chem. Phys. 52, 466 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Pender, J.

L. Hesselink, J. Pender, S. M. Jaffey, K. Dutta, in Flow Visualization III, W. J. Yang, ed. (Hemisphere, Washington, D.C., 1985), p. 295.

Porter, G. B.

W. A. Noyes, G. B. Porter, J. E. Jolley, Chem. Rev. 56, 49 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Rabe, B. R.

H. W. Sidebottom, C. C. Badcock, J. G. Calvert, B. R. Rabe, E. K. Ramon, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 13 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Badcock, H. W. Sidebottom, J. G. Calvert, B. R. Rabe, E. K. Ramon, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 19 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ramon, E. K.

C. C. Badcock, H. W. Sidebottom, J. G. Calvert, B. R. Rabe, E. K. Ramon, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 19 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Sidebottom, C. C. Badcock, J. G. Calvert, B. R. Rabe, E. K. Ramon, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 13 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Sidebottom, H. W.

H. W. Sidebottom, C. C. Badcock, J. G. Calvert, B. R. Rabe, E. K. Ramon, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 13 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Badcock, H. W. Sidebottom, J. G. Calvert, B. R. Rabe, E. K. Ramon, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 19 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Winter, M.

B. Yip, J. K. Lam, M. Winter, M. B. Long, Science 235, 1209 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yip, B.

B. Yip, J. K. Lam, M. Winter, M. B. Long, Science 235, 1209 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

AIAA J. (1)

M. C. Escoda, M. B. Long, AIAA J. 21, 81 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (1)

M. K. Lynch, P. Miller, C. Lewis, D. M. Nosenchuck, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 30, 1751 (1985).

Chem. Rev. (1)

W. A. Noyes, G. B. Porter, J. E. Jolley, Chem. Rev. 56, 49 (1956).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

H. W. Sidebottom, C. C. Badcock, J. G. Calvert, B. R. Rabe, E. K. Ramon, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 13 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Badcock, H. W. Sidebottom, J. G. Calvert, B. R. Rabe, E. K. Ramon, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 94, 19 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

L. G. Anderson, C. S. Parmenter, J. Chem. Phys. 52, 466 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluid Mech. (1)

J. Jiminez, M. Cogollos, L. P. Bernal, J. Fluid Mech. 152, 125 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

B. Yip, J. K. Lam, M. Winter, M. B. Long, Science 235, 1209 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

R. K. Hanson, in Proceedings of the 21st Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1986).

L. Hesselink, J. Pender, S. M. Jaffey, K. Dutta, in Flow Visualization III, W. J. Yang, ed. (Hemisphere, Washington, D.C., 1985), p. 295.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for measuring the instantaneous three-dimensional gas-concentration field in a turbulent jet or flame. A flash-lamp-pumped dye-laser beam is reflected from a scanning mirror, and lenses form the beam into a thin illumination sheet that sweeps through the flow volume. Illuminated planes of the flow are imaged onto an electronic framing camera, which frames 12 parallel planes in the flow as the sheet traverses it. The output phosphor of the camera is demagnified onto a CCD array detector for data digitization. (Only eight frames are shown on the phosphor in the figure.) The speed and the position of the dye laser sheet are monitored by a pair of photodiodes detecting a He–Ne-laser beam reflected from the rear surface of the scanning mirror. Beam splitters permit recording of the temporal and spatial energy profiles of the actual scanning laser sheet with a fast photodiode and a linear diode array, so that nonuniformities in the illumination can be compensated for during data corrections. A DEC Micro-VAX II computer stores the digitized outputs of the CCD array, fast photodiode, and linear photodiode array.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Instantaneous constant-gas-concentration surface in a turbulent jet (Reynolds number 13,800) measured by imaging Rayleigh scattering from the Freon-12 nozzle gas. The surface corresponds to a concentration of 73% of the maximum in this region, which is 3.4 × 1.7 × 0.7 nozzle diameters (d = 3.5 mm) in dimension and centered 6.9 diameters downstream of the nozzle. The flow direction is from left to right.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Instantaneous constant-fuel-gas-concentration surface in a turbulent premixed flame. The surface corresponds to a concentration of 64% of the maximum in this region and has been generated from experimental data by use of computer graphics. The flame was a stoichiometric methane–air mixture seeded with biacetyl vapor as a fluorescent marker, with a jet exit velocity of 19.5 m/sec. The imaged region is 2 × 1 × 0.5 nozzle diameters (d = 6 mm) in dimension, centered 5 diameters downstream of the burner. The flow direction is from left to right.

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