Abstract

We report the observation of cw four-wave mixing and phase conjugation in the UV on the N3 color-center resonance in diamond. Using a jitter-free technique, the nearly degenerate four-wave mixing spectrum has been measured and the ultranarrow, 250-Hz-wide resonance analyzed to understand the metastable-state decay process responsible for the low quantum efficiency and large nonlinear susceptibility of this aggregated nitrogen structure. The results establish the existence and lifetime of a new excited state of the defect.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. See for example, D. Wandt, W. Gellerman, F. Luty, H. Welling, Tunable Solid State Lasers II, Vol. 52 of Series in Optical Sciences, A. B. Budgor, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, New York, 1986), Chap. 7.
  2. S. C. Rand, L. G. DeShazer, Opt. Lett. 10, 481 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, Opt. Lett. 9, 13 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. T. Basiev, Yu K. Voron’ko, P. G. Zverev, S. B. Mirov, A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. Lett. 8, 658 (1982); S. C. Rand, D. S. Sumida, L. G. DeShazer, J. Phys. (Paris) C7, 479 (1985).
  5. S. C. Rand, Opt. Lett. 11, 135 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Davies, C. M. Welbourn, J. H. N. Loubser, Diamond Res. (1977), p. 23; M. F. Thomaz, G. Davies, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 362, 405 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. D. Clark, R. W. Ditchburn, H. B. Dyer, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 234, 363 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. A. Van Wyk, J. Phys. (Paris) C15, L981 (1982).
  9. S. C. Rand, in Lasers, Spectroscopy and Ideas, Vol. 54 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences, W. M. Yen, M. D. Levenson, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987), pp. 268–289.
  10. R. L. Abrams, R. C. Lind, Opt. Lett. 2, 94 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. J. Harter, R. W. Boyd, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1126 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. C. Rand, J. F. Lam, R. S. Turley, R. A. McFarlane, O. M. Stafsudd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 597 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

S. C. Rand, J. F. Lam, R. S. Turley, R. A. McFarlane, O. M. Stafsudd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 597 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

1982 (2)

T. T. Basiev, Yu K. Voron’ko, P. G. Zverev, S. B. Mirov, A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. Lett. 8, 658 (1982); S. C. Rand, D. S. Sumida, L. G. DeShazer, J. Phys. (Paris) C7, 479 (1985).

J. A. Van Wyk, J. Phys. (Paris) C15, L981 (1982).

1980 (1)

D. J. Harter, R. W. Boyd, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1126 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1977 (1)

G. Davies, C. M. Welbourn, J. H. N. Loubser, Diamond Res. (1977), p. 23; M. F. Thomaz, G. Davies, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 362, 405 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

C. D. Clark, R. W. Ditchburn, H. B. Dyer, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 234, 363 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Abrams, R. L.

Basiev, T. T.

T. T. Basiev, Yu K. Voron’ko, P. G. Zverev, S. B. Mirov, A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. Lett. 8, 658 (1982); S. C. Rand, D. S. Sumida, L. G. DeShazer, J. Phys. (Paris) C7, 479 (1985).

Boyd, R. W.

D. J. Harter, R. W. Boyd, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1126 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Clark, C. D.

C. D. Clark, R. W. Ditchburn, H. B. Dyer, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 234, 363 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Davies, G.

G. Davies, C. M. Welbourn, J. H. N. Loubser, Diamond Res. (1977), p. 23; M. F. Thomaz, G. Davies, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 362, 405 (1978).
[CrossRef]

DeShazer, L. G.

Ditchburn, R. W.

C. D. Clark, R. W. Ditchburn, H. B. Dyer, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 234, 363 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, H. B.

C. D. Clark, R. W. Ditchburn, H. B. Dyer, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 234, 363 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Gellerman, W.

See for example, D. Wandt, W. Gellerman, F. Luty, H. Welling, Tunable Solid State Lasers II, Vol. 52 of Series in Optical Sciences, A. B. Budgor, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, New York, 1986), Chap. 7.

Harter, D. J.

D. J. Harter, R. W. Boyd, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1126 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lam, J. F.

S. C. Rand, J. F. Lam, R. S. Turley, R. A. McFarlane, O. M. Stafsudd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 597 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lind, R. C.

Loubser, J. H. N.

G. Davies, C. M. Welbourn, J. H. N. Loubser, Diamond Res. (1977), p. 23; M. F. Thomaz, G. Davies, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 362, 405 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Luty, F.

See for example, D. Wandt, W. Gellerman, F. Luty, H. Welling, Tunable Solid State Lasers II, Vol. 52 of Series in Optical Sciences, A. B. Budgor, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, New York, 1986), Chap. 7.

McFarlane, R. A.

S. C. Rand, J. F. Lam, R. S. Turley, R. A. McFarlane, O. M. Stafsudd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 597 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirov, S. B.

T. T. Basiev, Yu K. Voron’ko, P. G. Zverev, S. B. Mirov, A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. Lett. 8, 658 (1982); S. C. Rand, D. S. Sumida, L. G. DeShazer, J. Phys. (Paris) C7, 479 (1985).

Mollenauer, L. F.

Prokhorov, A. M.

T. T. Basiev, Yu K. Voron’ko, P. G. Zverev, S. B. Mirov, A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. Lett. 8, 658 (1982); S. C. Rand, D. S. Sumida, L. G. DeShazer, J. Phys. (Paris) C7, 479 (1985).

Rand, S. C.

S. C. Rand, J. F. Lam, R. S. Turley, R. A. McFarlane, O. M. Stafsudd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 597 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Rand, Opt. Lett. 11, 135 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Rand, L. G. DeShazer, Opt. Lett. 10, 481 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Rand, in Lasers, Spectroscopy and Ideas, Vol. 54 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences, W. M. Yen, M. D. Levenson, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987), pp. 268–289.

Stafsudd, O. M.

S. C. Rand, J. F. Lam, R. S. Turley, R. A. McFarlane, O. M. Stafsudd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 597 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolen, R. H.

Turley, R. S.

S. C. Rand, J. F. Lam, R. S. Turley, R. A. McFarlane, O. M. Stafsudd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 597 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Wyk, J. A.

J. A. Van Wyk, J. Phys. (Paris) C15, L981 (1982).

Voron’ko, Yu K.

T. T. Basiev, Yu K. Voron’ko, P. G. Zverev, S. B. Mirov, A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. Lett. 8, 658 (1982); S. C. Rand, D. S. Sumida, L. G. DeShazer, J. Phys. (Paris) C7, 479 (1985).

Wandt, D.

See for example, D. Wandt, W. Gellerman, F. Luty, H. Welling, Tunable Solid State Lasers II, Vol. 52 of Series in Optical Sciences, A. B. Budgor, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, New York, 1986), Chap. 7.

Welbourn, C. M.

G. Davies, C. M. Welbourn, J. H. N. Loubser, Diamond Res. (1977), p. 23; M. F. Thomaz, G. Davies, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 362, 405 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Welling, H.

See for example, D. Wandt, W. Gellerman, F. Luty, H. Welling, Tunable Solid State Lasers II, Vol. 52 of Series in Optical Sciences, A. B. Budgor, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, New York, 1986), Chap. 7.

Zverev, P. G.

T. T. Basiev, Yu K. Voron’ko, P. G. Zverev, S. B. Mirov, A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. Lett. 8, 658 (1982); S. C. Rand, D. S. Sumida, L. G. DeShazer, J. Phys. (Paris) C7, 479 (1985).

Diamond Res. (1)

G. Davies, C. M. Welbourn, J. H. N. Loubser, Diamond Res. (1977), p. 23; M. F. Thomaz, G. Davies, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 362, 405 (1978).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. J. Harter, R. W. Boyd, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 1126 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. (Paris) (1)

J. A. Van Wyk, J. Phys. (Paris) C15, L981 (1982).

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. C. Rand, J. F. Lam, R. S. Turley, R. A. McFarlane, O. M. Stafsudd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 597 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

C. D. Clark, R. W. Ditchburn, H. B. Dyer, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 234, 363 (1956).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. T. Basiev, Yu K. Voron’ko, P. G. Zverev, S. B. Mirov, A. M. Prokhorov, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. Lett. 8, 658 (1982); S. C. Rand, D. S. Sumida, L. G. DeShazer, J. Phys. (Paris) C7, 479 (1985).

Other (2)

See for example, D. Wandt, W. Gellerman, F. Luty, H. Welling, Tunable Solid State Lasers II, Vol. 52 of Series in Optical Sciences, A. B. Budgor, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, New York, 1986), Chap. 7.

S. C. Rand, in Lasers, Spectroscopy and Ideas, Vol. 54 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences, W. M. Yen, M. D. Levenson, eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987), pp. 268–289.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption and emission spectra of the N3 center. The structural model6 is inset. Filled circles, nitrogen; open circle, carbon or possibly a neutral vacancy.8

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy levels of the N3 center (a) according to Ref. 6, (b) with the additional low-lying hietastable level |1〉inferred from the present NDFWM results.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental apparatus for NDFWM spectroscopy using synthesized frequencies for the three input beams. DET., detector.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

NDFWM spectrum of the N3 center. Four-wave mixing signal as a function of pump–probe detuning (dots) at a wavelength of λex = 406 nm. Theoretical curves show a Lorentzian of width (πτ)−1 = 436 Hz, as expected from state |2〉 relaxation alone (dashed curve), and the best fit using relation (1) (solid curve), which includes the new state |1〉 and determines its lifetime (τ′ = 1.2 msec). Inset: temporal decay (τ = 0.73 msec) of state |2〉 population measured with a cw Ar+ probe beam following pulsed excitation at λ = 370 nm.

Equations (1)

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I s | Ω f Ω b Ω p * exp [ i ( ω δ ) t + i k p · x ] | 2 × ( γ 10 + γ 21 ) 2 + δ 2 ( γ 10 2 + δ 2 ) ( γ 21 2 + δ 2 ) .

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