Abstract

We report, for the first time to our knowledge, fabrication of two types of negative-index-change waveguide lens in LiNbO3 by using ion milling. The first type is an analog Fresnel lens formed by grooves milled into the waveguide. The second is a hybrid lens that combines analog Fresnel zones in the central region with chirp gratings on the sides formed by the same means. We have obtained simultaneously high-efficiency and near-diffraction-limited focusing characteristics in both types of lens. The ion-milling technique employed should be capable of producing similar lenses in any other waveguide substrate, such as GaAs.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. K. Yao, D. B. Anderson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 307 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. M. Verber, D. W. Vahey, V. E. Wood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 514 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. U. Chen, E. Maron, A. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 263 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Naumaan, J. T. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 234 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Y. Zang, C. S. Tsai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 703 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. K. Tien, S. Riva-Sanseverino, R. J. Martin, G. Smolinsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 547 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J.-M. Delavaux, W. S. C. Chang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 86 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  10. B. Denturck, R. Baets, P. E. Lagasse, presented at the Second European Conference on Integrated Optics, Florence, Italy, October 17–18, 1983.
  11. P. K. Tien, R. J. Martin, S. Riva-Sanseverino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 251 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. D. Micheli, J. Botineau, S. Neveu, P. Sibillot, D. B. Ostrowsky, Opt. Lett. 8, 114 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. I. Hatakoshi, S.-I. Tanaka, Opt. Lett. 2, 142 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (3)

D. Y. Zang, C. S. Tsai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 703 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Delavaux, W. S. C. Chang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 86 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. Gidon, S. Valette, P. Mottier, Opt. Eng. 24, 235 (1985).

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

1979 (1)

A. Naumaan, J. T. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 234 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

S. K. Yao, D. B. Anderson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 307 (1978).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Hatakoshi, S.-I. Tanaka, Opt. Lett. 2, 142 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

B. U. Chen, E. Maron, A. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 263 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

C. M. Verber, D. W. Vahey, V. E. Wood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 514 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

P. K. Tien, R. J. Martin, S. Riva-Sanseverino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 251 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

P. K. Tien, S. Riva-Sanseverino, R. J. Martin, G. Smolinsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 547 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, D. B.

S. K. Yao, D. B. Anderson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 307 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

B. Denturck, R. Baets, P. E. Lagasse, presented at the Second European Conference on Integrated Optics, Florence, Italy, October 17–18, 1983.

Botineau, J.

Boyd, J. T.

A. Naumaan, J. T. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 234 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W. S. C.

J.-M. Delavaux, W. S. C. Chang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 86 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B. U.

B. U. Chen, E. Maron, A. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 263 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Delavaux, J.-M.

J.-M. Delavaux, W. S. C. Chang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 86 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Denturck, B.

B. Denturck, R. Baets, P. E. Lagasse, presented at the Second European Conference on Integrated Optics, Florence, Italy, October 17–18, 1983.

Gidon, P.

P. Gidon, S. Valette, P. Mottier, Opt. Eng. 24, 235 (1985).

Hatakoshi, G. I.

Koboyashi, K.

Koyama, J.

Lagasse, P. E.

B. Denturck, R. Baets, P. E. Lagasse, presented at the Second European Conference on Integrated Optics, Florence, Italy, October 17–18, 1983.

Lee, A.

B. U. Chen, E. Maron, A. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 263 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Maron, E.

B. U. Chen, E. Maron, A. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 263 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. J.

P. K. Tien, R. J. Martin, S. Riva-Sanseverino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 251 (1975).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, S. Riva-Sanseverino, R. J. Martin, G. Smolinsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 547 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Micheli, M. D.

Mottier, P.

P. Gidon, S. Valette, P. Mottier, Opt. Eng. 24, 235 (1985).

Naumaan, A.

A. Naumaan, J. T. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 234 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Neveu, S.

Nishihara, H.

Ostrowsky, D. B.

Riva-Sanseverino, S.

P. K. Tien, R. J. Martin, S. Riva-Sanseverino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 251 (1975).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, S. Riva-Sanseverino, R. J. Martin, G. Smolinsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 547 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Sibillot, P.

Smolinsky, G.

P. K. Tien, S. Riva-Sanseverino, R. J. Martin, G. Smolinsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 547 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Suhara, T.

Tanaka, S.-I.

Tien, P. K.

P. K. Tien, R. J. Martin, S. Riva-Sanseverino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 251 (1975).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, S. Riva-Sanseverino, R. J. Martin, G. Smolinsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 547 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. S.

D. Y. Zang, C. S. Tsai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 703 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Vahey, D. W.

C. M. Verber, D. W. Vahey, V. E. Wood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 514 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Valette, S.

P. Gidon, S. Valette, P. Mottier, Opt. Eng. 24, 235 (1985).

Verber, C. M.

C. M. Verber, D. W. Vahey, V. E. Wood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 514 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wood, V. E.

C. M. Verber, D. W. Vahey, V. E. Wood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 514 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Yao, S. K.

S. K. Yao, D. B. Anderson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 307 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Zang, D. Y.

D. Y. Zang, C. S. Tsai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 703 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

P. K. Tien, R. J. Martin, S. Riva-Sanseverino, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 251 (1975).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Yao, D. B. Anderson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 307 (1978).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Verber, D. W. Vahey, V. E. Wood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 514 (1976).
[CrossRef]

B. U. Chen, E. Maron, A. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 263 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Naumaan, J. T. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 234 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Zang, C. S. Tsai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 703 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Tien, S. Riva-Sanseverino, R. J. Martin, G. Smolinsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 547 (1974).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J.-M. Delavaux, W. S. C. Chang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 86 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. Gidon, S. Valette, P. Mottier, Opt. Eng. 24, 235 (1985).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

B. Denturck, R. Baets, P. E. Lagasse, presented at the Second European Conference on Integrated Optics, Florence, Italy, October 17–18, 1983.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Positive-index-change analog Fresnel lens with deposited layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Negative-index-change analog Fresnel lens with etched groove.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Negative-index-change chirp grating lens with etched groove.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Negative-index-change hybrid lens with etched groove.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Focal-spot profiles obtained with three negative-index-change lenses: (a) analog Fresnel lens, (b) chirp grating lens, (c) hybrid lens.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Design Parameters and Measured Performance of Ion-Milled Negative-Index-Change Lenses in LiNbO3

Equations (9)

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ϕ ( z ) = k n e [ f - ( f 2 + z 2 ) 1 / 2 ] ,
L ( z ) = λ 0 Δ n e [ 1 - 1 2 π ϕ ( z ) mod 2 π ] ,
L ( z ) = λ 0 Δ n e [ - 1 2 π ϕ ( z ) mod 2 π ] .
z m = sign ( m ) [ ( 2 m π n e k ) 2 + ( 4 m π n e k ) f ] 1 / 2 ,             m = 0 , ± 1 , ± 2 , .
d m = z ( m + 1 / 4 ) - z ( m - 1 / 4 ) ,
θ m = ( 1 / 2 ) arctan ( z m / f ) .
L = π λ 0 / 4 Δ n e .
Q = 2 π λ 0 L / ( n e Λ 2 ) ,
σ = 0.88 λ 0 F # / n e ,

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