Abstract

Channel waveguides and Mach–Zehnder interferometers were fabricated in LiNbO3 by annealed proton exchange. The waveguides had a loss of 0.15 dB/cm and a fiber-to-fiber insertion loss of 1.2 dB at 0.8 μm. The measured r33 electro-optic coefficient of the interferometers was 30 × 10−12 m/V ±5%, which agrees well with theory, indicating that there is no degradation in the r33 coefficient. No variation in insertion loss or switching voltage was observed over 8 months for devices stored at room temperature.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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