Abstract

Channel waveguides and Mach–Zehnder interferometers were fabricated in LiNbO3 by annealed proton exchange. The waveguides had a loss of 0.15 dB/cm and a fiber-to-fiber insertion loss of 1.2 dB at 0.8 μm. The measured r33 electro-optic coefficient of the interferometers was 30 × 10−12 m/V ±5%, which agrees well with theory, indicating that there is no degradation in the r33 coefficient. No variation in insertion loss or switching voltage was observed over 8 months for devices stored at room temperature.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. L. Jackel, A. M. Glass, G. E. Peterson, C. E. Rice, D. H. Olson, J. J. Veselka, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 269 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Yi-Yan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 633 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. A. Becker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 131 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Minakata, K. Kumagai, S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 992 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. K. Wong, R. M. De La Rue, S. Wright, Opt. Lett. 7, 546 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Findakly, B. Chen, Electron. Lett. 20, 128 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. J. Veselka, G. A. Bogert, Electron. Lett. 23, 265 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. G. Suchoski, T. K. Findakly, F. J. Leonberger, Opt. Lett. 13, 172 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. G. Suchoski, M. M. Abou el leil, T. K. Findakly, F. J. Leonberger, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper MD4.
  11. R. C. Alferness, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1121 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. M. Abou el leil, F. J. Leonberger, in Digest of the 89th Annual Meeting of the American Ceramic Society (American Ceramic Society, Westerville, Ohio, 1987), paper 53-EP-87.
  13. J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 460, 43 (1984).
  14. C. E. Rice, J. L. Jackel, Mater. Res. Bull. 19, 591 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Loni, R. M. De La Rue, J. M. Winfield, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper MD3.

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

J. J. Veselka, G. A. Bogert, Electron. Lett. 23, 265 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. Minakata, K. Kumagai, S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 992 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (4)

T. Findakly, B. Chen, Electron. Lett. 20, 128 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jackel, A. M. Glass, G. E. Peterson, C. E. Rice, D. H. Olson, J. J. Veselka, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 269 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 460, 43 (1984).

C. E. Rice, J. L. Jackel, Mater. Res. Bull. 19, 591 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

A. Yi-Yan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 633 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Becker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 131 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (3)

K. K. Wong, R. M. De La Rue, S. Wright, Opt. Lett. 7, 546 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Alferness, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1121 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Abou el leil, M. M.

P. G. Suchoski, M. M. Abou el leil, T. K. Findakly, F. J. Leonberger, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper MD4.

M. M. Abou el leil, F. J. Leonberger, in Digest of the 89th Annual Meeting of the American Ceramic Society (American Ceramic Society, Westerville, Ohio, 1987), paper 53-EP-87.

Alferness, R. C.

R. C. Alferness, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1121 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Becker, R. A.

R. A. Becker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 131 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bogert, G. A.

J. J. Veselka, G. A. Bogert, Electron. Lett. 23, 265 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

T. Findakly, B. Chen, Electron. Lett. 20, 128 (1984).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

K. K. Wong, R. M. De La Rue, S. Wright, Opt. Lett. 7, 546 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Loni, R. M. De La Rue, J. M. Winfield, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper MD3.

Findakly, T.

T. Findakly, B. Chen, Electron. Lett. 20, 128 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Findakly, T. K.

P. G. Suchoski, T. K. Findakly, F. J. Leonberger, Opt. Lett. 13, 172 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Suchoski, M. M. Abou el leil, T. K. Findakly, F. J. Leonberger, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper MD4.

Glass, A. M.

J. L. Jackel, A. M. Glass, G. E. Peterson, C. E. Rice, D. H. Olson, J. J. Veselka, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 269 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, J. L.

J. L. Jackel, A. M. Glass, G. E. Peterson, C. E. Rice, D. H. Olson, J. J. Veselka, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 269 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 460, 43 (1984).

C. E. Rice, J. L. Jackel, Mater. Res. Bull. 19, 591 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, S.

M. Minakata, K. Kumagai, S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 992 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, K.

M. Minakata, K. Kumagai, S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 992 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Leonberger, F. J.

P. G. Suchoski, T. K. Findakly, F. J. Leonberger, Opt. Lett. 13, 172 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Suchoski, M. M. Abou el leil, T. K. Findakly, F. J. Leonberger, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper MD4.

M. M. Abou el leil, F. J. Leonberger, in Digest of the 89th Annual Meeting of the American Ceramic Society (American Ceramic Society, Westerville, Ohio, 1987), paper 53-EP-87.

Loni, A.

A. Loni, R. M. De La Rue, J. M. Winfield, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper MD3.

Minakata, M.

M. Minakata, K. Kumagai, S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 992 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Olson, D. H.

J. L. Jackel, A. M. Glass, G. E. Peterson, C. E. Rice, D. H. Olson, J. J. Veselka, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 269 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, G. E.

J. L. Jackel, A. M. Glass, G. E. Peterson, C. E. Rice, D. H. Olson, J. J. Veselka, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 269 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rice, C. E.

J. L. Jackel, A. M. Glass, G. E. Peterson, C. E. Rice, D. H. Olson, J. J. Veselka, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 269 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 460, 43 (1984).

C. E. Rice, J. L. Jackel, Mater. Res. Bull. 19, 591 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Suchoski, P. G.

P. G. Suchoski, T. K. Findakly, F. J. Leonberger, Opt. Lett. 13, 172 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Suchoski, M. M. Abou el leil, T. K. Findakly, F. J. Leonberger, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper MD4.

Veselka, J. J.

J. J. Veselka, G. A. Bogert, Electron. Lett. 23, 265 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jackel, A. M. Glass, G. E. Peterson, C. E. Rice, D. H. Olson, J. J. Veselka, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 269 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Winfield, J. M.

A. Loni, R. M. De La Rue, J. M. Winfield, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper MD3.

Wong, K. K.

Wright, S.

Yi-Yan, A.

A. Yi-Yan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 633 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

A. Yi-Yan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 633 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Becker, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 131 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. Minakata, K. Kumagai, S. Kawakami, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 992 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, J. J. Veselka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 607 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

T. Findakly, B. Chen, Electron. Lett. 20, 128 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Veselka, G. A. Bogert, Electron. Lett. 23, 265 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

R. C. Alferness, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1121 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. L. Jackel, A. M. Glass, G. E. Peterson, C. E. Rice, D. H. Olson, J. J. Veselka, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 269 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

C. E. Rice, J. L. Jackel, Mater. Res. Bull. 19, 591 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

J. L. Jackel, C. E. Rice, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 460, 43 (1984).

Other (3)

A. Loni, R. M. De La Rue, J. M. Winfield, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper MD3.

M. M. Abou el leil, F. J. Leonberger, in Digest of the 89th Annual Meeting of the American Ceramic Society (American Ceramic Society, Westerville, Ohio, 1987), paper 53-EP-87.

P. G. Suchoski, M. M. Abou el leil, T. K. Findakly, F. J. Leonberger, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided-Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), paper MD4.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Near-field scan of the imaged output from an APE Y junction. (b) Magnified (100×) plot of the noise floor corresponding to (a).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Change in the surface refractive index as a function of melt dilution for planar waveguides fabricated in benzoic acid diluted with lithium benzoate.12

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