Abstract

Continuous-wave self-deflection of an asymmetrical laser beam, with a deflection angle up to eight diffraction widths, and strong attenuation of the on-axis radiation were achieved in a short sodium-vapor cell. We determined that the nonlinear refractive index Δn varied almost linearly with intensity I, Δnn2I, with n2 ~ −10−7 cm2/W at ~200°C and intensities less than 220 W/cm2.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. E. Kaplan, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 9, 58 (1969) [JETP Lett. 9, 33 (1969)].
  2. M. S. Brodin, A. M. Kamuz, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 9, 577 (1969) [JETP Lett. 9, 351 (1969)].
  3. A. E. Kaplan, Opt. Lett. 6, 360 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. A. Hermann, Opt. Commun. 62, 367 (1987); Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 169 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. A. Swartzlander, A. E. Kaplan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 765 (1988); G. A. Swartzlander, M.S. thesis (Purdue University, West Lafayette, Ind., 1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Javan, P. L. Kelley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 470 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. H. Close, Phys. Rev. 153, 360 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. E. Bjorkholm, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, N.J. 07733 (communication).
  9. I. C. Khoo, R. R. Michael, T. H. Liu, G. Finn, A. E. Kaplan, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 613, 43 (1986); I. C. Khoo, G. M. Finn, R. R. Michael, T. H. Liu, Opt. Lett. 11, 227 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. I. Golub, Y. Beaudoin, S. L. Chin, Opt. Lett. 13, 488 (1988); “Self-bending of a spatially asymmetric carbon dioxide laser beam in a nonlinear medium” (to be published).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 129 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. E. Bjorkholm, P. W. Smith, W. J. Tomlinson, A. E. Kaplan, Opt. Lett. 6, 345 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, T. N. C. Venkatesan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1135 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. C. Tam, W. Happer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 278 (1977).
    [CrossRef]

1988 (2)

1987 (1)

J. A. Hermann, Opt. Commun. 62, 367 (1987); Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 169 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

I. C. Khoo, R. R. Michael, T. H. Liu, G. Finn, A. E. Kaplan, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 613, 43 (1986); I. C. Khoo, G. M. Finn, R. R. Michael, T. H. Liu, Opt. Lett. 11, 227 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (2)

1977 (1)

A. C. Tam, W. Happer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 278 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, T. N. C. Venkatesan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1135 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 129 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1969 (2)

A. E. Kaplan, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 9, 58 (1969) [JETP Lett. 9, 33 (1969)].

M. S. Brodin, A. M. Kamuz, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 9, 577 (1969) [JETP Lett. 9, 351 (1969)].

1967 (1)

D. H. Close, Phys. Rev. 153, 360 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

A. Javan, P. L. Kelley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 470 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 129 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Beaudoin, Y.

Bjorkholm, J. E.

J. E. Bjorkholm, P. W. Smith, W. J. Tomlinson, A. E. Kaplan, Opt. Lett. 6, 345 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 129 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bjorkholm, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, N.J. 07733 (communication).

Brodin, M. S.

M. S. Brodin, A. M. Kamuz, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 9, 577 (1969) [JETP Lett. 9, 351 (1969)].

Chin, S. L.

Close, D. H.

D. H. Close, Phys. Rev. 153, 360 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Finn, G.

I. C. Khoo, R. R. Michael, T. H. Liu, G. Finn, A. E. Kaplan, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 613, 43 (1986); I. C. Khoo, G. M. Finn, R. R. Michael, T. H. Liu, Opt. Lett. 11, 227 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibbs, H. M.

H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, T. N. C. Venkatesan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1135 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Golub, I.

Happer, W.

A. C. Tam, W. Happer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 278 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, J. A.

J. A. Hermann, Opt. Commun. 62, 367 (1987); Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 169 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Javan, A.

A. Javan, P. L. Kelley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 470 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Kamuz, A. M.

M. S. Brodin, A. M. Kamuz, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 9, 577 (1969) [JETP Lett. 9, 351 (1969)].

Kaplan, A. E.

G. A. Swartzlander, A. E. Kaplan, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 765 (1988); G. A. Swartzlander, M.S. thesis (Purdue University, West Lafayette, Ind., 1985).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, R. R. Michael, T. H. Liu, G. Finn, A. E. Kaplan, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 613, 43 (1986); I. C. Khoo, G. M. Finn, R. R. Michael, T. H. Liu, Opt. Lett. 11, 227 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Bjorkholm, P. W. Smith, W. J. Tomlinson, A. E. Kaplan, Opt. Lett. 6, 345 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Kaplan, Opt. Lett. 6, 360 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Kaplan, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 9, 58 (1969) [JETP Lett. 9, 33 (1969)].

Kelley, P. L.

A. Javan, P. L. Kelley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 470 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, R. R. Michael, T. H. Liu, G. Finn, A. E. Kaplan, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 613, 43 (1986); I. C. Khoo, G. M. Finn, R. R. Michael, T. H. Liu, Opt. Lett. 11, 227 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, T. H.

I. C. Khoo, R. R. Michael, T. H. Liu, G. Finn, A. E. Kaplan, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 613, 43 (1986); I. C. Khoo, G. M. Finn, R. R. Michael, T. H. Liu, Opt. Lett. 11, 227 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCall, S. L.

H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, T. N. C. Venkatesan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1135 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Michael, R. R.

I. C. Khoo, R. R. Michael, T. H. Liu, G. Finn, A. E. Kaplan, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 613, 43 (1986); I. C. Khoo, G. M. Finn, R. R. Michael, T. H. Liu, Opt. Lett. 11, 227 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, P. W.

Swartzlander, G. A.

Tam, A. C.

A. C. Tam, W. Happer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 278 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Tomlinson, W. J.

Venkatesan, T. N. C.

H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, T. N. C. Venkatesan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1135 (1976).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Javan, P. L. Kelley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-2, 470 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. A. Hermann, Opt. Commun. 62, 367 (1987); Opt. Quantum Electron. 19, 169 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. (1)

D. H. Close, Phys. Rev. 153, 360 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

H. M. Gibbs, S. L. McCall, T. N. C. Venkatesan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 1135 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Tam, W. Happer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 278 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bjorkholm, A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 32, 129 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. (2)

A. E. Kaplan, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 9, 58 (1969) [JETP Lett. 9, 33 (1969)].

M. S. Brodin, A. M. Kamuz, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 9, 577 (1969) [JETP Lett. 9, 351 (1969)].

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

I. C. Khoo, R. R. Michael, T. H. Liu, G. Finn, A. E. Kaplan, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 613, 43 (1986); I. C. Khoo, G. M. Finn, R. R. Michael, T. H. Liu, Opt. Lett. 11, 227 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. E. Bjorkholm, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, N.J. 07733 (communication).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Half of a Gaussian laser beam is covered with a razor blade (RB), forming an asymmetrical profile that is then imaged (Im) into the sodium cell.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Far-field profiles for (a) linear and (b) nonlinear propagation of an asymmetrical beam through a short sodium cell, demonstrating self-deflection of the intensity peak in (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Self-deflection angle plotted against the input beam power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Far-field on-axis intensity (in arbitrary units) versus the input power. The solid curve is a fit to relation (2).

Equations (3)

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θ NL / θ D = - n 2 k L I 0 / 2 ,
I on - axis [ C 2 ( η NL ) + S 2 ( η NL ) ] w 0 4 / n 2 k L , η NL = 2 n 2 k L I 0 / π ,
n 2 = ( ln 2 ) 3 / 2 c 5 N / 32 π 6 Δ 3 h ν 0 6 Δ ν D 3 τ N 2 .

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