Abstract

We have investigated the spectroscopic properties of a crystalline sapphire fiber unintentionally doped with Cr3+. We find that tensile stress produces blue shifts of the R lines and changes in their radiative lifetimes and integrated intensities that can be correlated to stress-induced changes of the crystal-field parameters.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. L. Schawlow, in Advances in Quantum Electronics, J. R. Singer, ed. (Columbia U. Press, New York, 1961), Vol. 2, p. 50; A. L. Schawlow, A. H. Piksis, S. Sugano, Phys. Rev. 122, 1469 (1961); L. F. Mollenauer, A. L. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. 168, 309 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. Sugano, in Lasers, Spectroscopy and Ideas, W. M. Yen, M. D. Levenson, eds., Vol. 54 in Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987), p. 224; S. Ohnishi, S. Sugano, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21, L309 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. A. Kaplyanskii, A. K. Przhevuskii, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 7, 37 (1962); Phys. Status Solidi 11, 629 (1965).
  4. R. S. Feigelson, Tunable Solid State Lasers, P. Hammerling, A. Budger, A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 47 in Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985), p. 129.
  5. S. P. S. Porto, R. S. Krishnan, J. Chem. Phys. 47, 1009 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. E. McCumber, M. D. Sturge, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1682 (1963); T. Muramoto, T. Hashi, Phys. Lett. 51A, 423 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  7. W. M. Yen, G. F. Imbusch, in Lasers, Spectroscopy and Ideas, W. M. Yen, M. D. Levenson, eds., Vol. 54 in Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987), p. 248.
  8. U. Rothamel, J. Heber, W. Grill, Z. Phys. B50, 297 (1963).
  9. E. Feher, M. D. Sturge, Phys. Rev. 172, 244 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  10. J.-A. Xu, M.-G. Zhao, Sci. Sin. 26, 721 (1981).
  11. Hydrostatic pressure, of course, affects the three-dimensional cell volume. As a result, the hydrostatic pressure-induced shift rate of 0.757 cm−1/kbar can be shown to be approximated by the sum of the stress-induced coefficients (0.28, 0.26, and 0.215 cm−1/kbar; see Ref. 9) along the a, b, and c axes, respectively.
  12. R. M. Macfarlane, Phys. Rev. 158, 252 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. Sugano, Y. Tanabe, H. Kanimura, Multiplets of Transition Metal Ions in Crystals (Academic, New York, 1970).
  14. W. Seelert, E. Strauss, J. Lumin. 36, 355 (1987).
    [Crossref]

1987 (1)

W. Seelert, E. Strauss, J. Lumin. 36, 355 (1987).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

J.-A. Xu, M.-G. Zhao, Sci. Sin. 26, 721 (1981).

1968 (1)

E. Feher, M. D. Sturge, Phys. Rev. 172, 244 (1968).
[Crossref]

1967 (2)

S. P. S. Porto, R. S. Krishnan, J. Chem. Phys. 47, 1009 (1967).
[Crossref]

R. M. Macfarlane, Phys. Rev. 158, 252 (1967).
[Crossref]

1963 (2)

D. E. McCumber, M. D. Sturge, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1682 (1963); T. Muramoto, T. Hashi, Phys. Lett. 51A, 423 (1975).
[Crossref]

U. Rothamel, J. Heber, W. Grill, Z. Phys. B50, 297 (1963).

1962 (1)

A. A. Kaplyanskii, A. K. Przhevuskii, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 7, 37 (1962); Phys. Status Solidi 11, 629 (1965).

Feher, E.

E. Feher, M. D. Sturge, Phys. Rev. 172, 244 (1968).
[Crossref]

Feigelson, R. S.

R. S. Feigelson, Tunable Solid State Lasers, P. Hammerling, A. Budger, A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 47 in Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985), p. 129.

Grill, W.

U. Rothamel, J. Heber, W. Grill, Z. Phys. B50, 297 (1963).

Heber, J.

U. Rothamel, J. Heber, W. Grill, Z. Phys. B50, 297 (1963).

Imbusch, G. F.

W. M. Yen, G. F. Imbusch, in Lasers, Spectroscopy and Ideas, W. M. Yen, M. D. Levenson, eds., Vol. 54 in Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987), p. 248.

Kanimura, H.

S. Sugano, Y. Tanabe, H. Kanimura, Multiplets of Transition Metal Ions in Crystals (Academic, New York, 1970).

Kaplyanskii, A. A.

A. A. Kaplyanskii, A. K. Przhevuskii, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 7, 37 (1962); Phys. Status Solidi 11, 629 (1965).

Krishnan, R. S.

S. P. S. Porto, R. S. Krishnan, J. Chem. Phys. 47, 1009 (1967).
[Crossref]

Macfarlane, R. M.

R. M. Macfarlane, Phys. Rev. 158, 252 (1967).
[Crossref]

McCumber, D. E.

D. E. McCumber, M. D. Sturge, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1682 (1963); T. Muramoto, T. Hashi, Phys. Lett. 51A, 423 (1975).
[Crossref]

Porto, S. P. S.

S. P. S. Porto, R. S. Krishnan, J. Chem. Phys. 47, 1009 (1967).
[Crossref]

Przhevuskii, A. K.

A. A. Kaplyanskii, A. K. Przhevuskii, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 7, 37 (1962); Phys. Status Solidi 11, 629 (1965).

Rothamel, U.

U. Rothamel, J. Heber, W. Grill, Z. Phys. B50, 297 (1963).

Schawlow, A. L.

A. L. Schawlow, in Advances in Quantum Electronics, J. R. Singer, ed. (Columbia U. Press, New York, 1961), Vol. 2, p. 50; A. L. Schawlow, A. H. Piksis, S. Sugano, Phys. Rev. 122, 1469 (1961); L. F. Mollenauer, A. L. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. 168, 309 (1968).
[Crossref]

Seelert, W.

W. Seelert, E. Strauss, J. Lumin. 36, 355 (1987).
[Crossref]

Strauss, E.

W. Seelert, E. Strauss, J. Lumin. 36, 355 (1987).
[Crossref]

Sturge, M. D.

E. Feher, M. D. Sturge, Phys. Rev. 172, 244 (1968).
[Crossref]

D. E. McCumber, M. D. Sturge, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1682 (1963); T. Muramoto, T. Hashi, Phys. Lett. 51A, 423 (1975).
[Crossref]

Sugano, S.

S. Sugano, in Lasers, Spectroscopy and Ideas, W. M. Yen, M. D. Levenson, eds., Vol. 54 in Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987), p. 224; S. Ohnishi, S. Sugano, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21, L309 (1982).
[Crossref]

S. Sugano, Y. Tanabe, H. Kanimura, Multiplets of Transition Metal Ions in Crystals (Academic, New York, 1970).

Tanabe, Y.

S. Sugano, Y. Tanabe, H. Kanimura, Multiplets of Transition Metal Ions in Crystals (Academic, New York, 1970).

Xu, J.-A.

J.-A. Xu, M.-G. Zhao, Sci. Sin. 26, 721 (1981).

Yen, W. M.

W. M. Yen, G. F. Imbusch, in Lasers, Spectroscopy and Ideas, W. M. Yen, M. D. Levenson, eds., Vol. 54 in Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987), p. 248.

Zhao, M.-G.

J.-A. Xu, M.-G. Zhao, Sci. Sin. 26, 721 (1981).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. E. McCumber, M. D. Sturge, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 1682 (1963); T. Muramoto, T. Hashi, Phys. Lett. 51A, 423 (1975).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

S. P. S. Porto, R. S. Krishnan, J. Chem. Phys. 47, 1009 (1967).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (1)

W. Seelert, E. Strauss, J. Lumin. 36, 355 (1987).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (2)

E. Feher, M. D. Sturge, Phys. Rev. 172, 244 (1968).
[Crossref]

R. M. Macfarlane, Phys. Rev. 158, 252 (1967).
[Crossref]

Sci. Sin. (1)

J.-A. Xu, M.-G. Zhao, Sci. Sin. 26, 721 (1981).

Sov. Phys. Dokl. (1)

A. A. Kaplyanskii, A. K. Przhevuskii, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 7, 37 (1962); Phys. Status Solidi 11, 629 (1965).

Z. Phys. (1)

U. Rothamel, J. Heber, W. Grill, Z. Phys. B50, 297 (1963).

Other (6)

W. M. Yen, G. F. Imbusch, in Lasers, Spectroscopy and Ideas, W. M. Yen, M. D. Levenson, eds., Vol. 54 in Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987), p. 248.

R. S. Feigelson, Tunable Solid State Lasers, P. Hammerling, A. Budger, A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 47 in Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1985), p. 129.

A. L. Schawlow, in Advances in Quantum Electronics, J. R. Singer, ed. (Columbia U. Press, New York, 1961), Vol. 2, p. 50; A. L. Schawlow, A. H. Piksis, S. Sugano, Phys. Rev. 122, 1469 (1961); L. F. Mollenauer, A. L. Schawlow, Phys. Rev. 168, 309 (1968).
[Crossref]

S. Sugano, in Lasers, Spectroscopy and Ideas, W. M. Yen, M. D. Levenson, eds., Vol. 54 in Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987), p. 224; S. Ohnishi, S. Sugano, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 21, L309 (1982).
[Crossref]

Hydrostatic pressure, of course, affects the three-dimensional cell volume. As a result, the hydrostatic pressure-induced shift rate of 0.757 cm−1/kbar can be shown to be approximated by the sum of the stress-induced coefficients (0.28, 0.26, and 0.215 cm−1/kbar; see Ref. 9) along the a, b, and c axes, respectively.

S. Sugano, Y. Tanabe, H. Kanimura, Multiplets of Transition Metal Ions in Crystals (Academic, New York, 1970).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Tensile stress dependence of the blue shift of the R lines of Cr3+ in a single-crystal sapphire fiber. As can be seen, the shifts are linear up the yielding point of 6.0 kbars; the tensile strength of the fiber is 7.7 kbars. Shifts arising from uniaxial compression stress9 are also shown for comparison.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Radiative lifetime of the R line (2E to 4A2) transitions of Cr3+ in the optical fiber shown as a function of applied tensile stress. The solid line is a theoretical fit to the observed decrease as discussed in text.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Changes in the integrated total intensity of the R lines in a sapphire fiber as a function of decompressing stress. This change is connected to the variation of the energy separation of the 2E from the 4T2 states of Cr3+.

Equations (4)

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I ( E 2 - A 4 2 ) = R ^ / W ( T 4 2 ) - W ( E 2 ) 2 ,
R ^ = x C x A 4 2 e r ^ T 4 2 x T 4 2 x ζ L ^ S ^ 2 E .
τ = τ 0 1 - η 0 + η 0 ( 1 + κ P ) - 2 ,
κ = Δ [ W ( T 4 2 ) - W ( E 2 ) ] [ W ( T 4 2 ) - W ( E 2 ) ] P .

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