Abstract

We have experimentally demonstrated a single-beam interferometer that effectively subtracts an exponentially weighted history of the input from the current value, thus functioning as a novelty filter. The single-beam interferometer uses signal depletion due to noise amplification (fanout) in a specially cut crystal of photorefractive BaTiO3. To demonstrate its real-time operation we used a Hughes liquid-crystal light valve to convert a video image into a phase- and/or amplitude-modulated input signal. Potential applications of this interferometer include image-clutter removal, motion detection and tracking, edge enhancement, and image time differentiation.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Z. Anderson, D. M. Lininger, J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 12, 123 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Cronin-Golomb, A. M. Biernacki, C. Lin, H. Kong, Opt. Lett. 12, 1029 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Ford, Y. Fainman, S. H. Lee, in Technical Digest on Spatial Light Modulators and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 40.
  4. Y. Fainman, E. Klancnik, S. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 25, 228 (1986).
  5. R. A. Rupp, F. W. Drees, Appl. Phys. B 39, 223 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Fainman, C. C. Guest, S. H. Lee, Appl. Opt. 25, 1598 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

1986 (3)

Y. Fainman, E. Klancnik, S. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 25, 228 (1986).

R. A. Rupp, F. W. Drees, Appl. Phys. B 39, 223 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fainman, C. C. Guest, S. H. Lee, Appl. Opt. 25, 1598 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, D. Z.

Biernacki, A. M.

Cronin-Golomb, M.

Drees, F. W.

R. A. Rupp, F. W. Drees, Appl. Phys. B 39, 223 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

Y. Fainman, C. C. Guest, S. H. Lee, Appl. Opt. 25, 1598 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fainman, E. Klancnik, S. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 25, 228 (1986).

J. Ford, Y. Fainman, S. H. Lee, in Technical Digest on Spatial Light Modulators and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 40.

Feinberg, J.

Ford, J.

J. Ford, Y. Fainman, S. H. Lee, in Technical Digest on Spatial Light Modulators and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 40.

Guest, C. C.

Klancnik, E.

Y. Fainman, E. Klancnik, S. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 25, 228 (1986).

Kong, H.

Lee, S. H.

Y. Fainman, E. Klancnik, S. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 25, 228 (1986).

Y. Fainman, C. C. Guest, S. H. Lee, Appl. Opt. 25, 1598 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ford, Y. Fainman, S. H. Lee, in Technical Digest on Spatial Light Modulators and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 40.

Lin, C.

Lininger, D. M.

Rupp, R. A.

R. A. Rupp, F. W. Drees, Appl. Phys. B 39, 223 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. A. Rupp, F. W. Drees, Appl. Phys. B 39, 223 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Y. Fainman, E. Klancnik, S. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 25, 228 (1986).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

J. Ford, Y. Fainman, S. H. Lee, in Technical Digest on Spatial Light Modulators and Applications (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 40.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the single-beam interferometer. A time-varying video image is converted to a phase-modulated input signal, which is focused into the special-cut BaTiO3 crystal, where fanout occurs. The transmitted signal is separated from the amplified noise by a spatial filter and imaged onto the output plane.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Transmitted output signal just after initial illumination of the motionless input scene. Notice the model car at the lower right. After a few seconds, the output vanishes completely. (b) Transmitted output just after the model car was moved to the left. The car’s initial and current positions are revealed, along with a fading trail of the most recent positions. The stationary components of the scene remain dark.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output of the interferometer showing edge enhancement of the model car. The car was moved forward slightly after the signal was completely depleted so that only the edges were changed in intensity.

Equations (5)

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I ( t ) / I ( 0 ) = ( 1 + m 0 ) / { 1 + m 0 exp [ Γ eff ( t ) L ] } ,
Γ eff ( t ) = Γ 0 [ 1 - exp ( - t / τ ) ] ,
E out ( x , y ; t ) 2 = 1 + m 0 1 + m 0 exp [ Γ eff ( x , y ; t ) L ] E in ( x , y ; t ) 2 ,
E ¯ ( x , y ; t ) = 1 τ 0 E ( x , y ; t - T ) exp ( - T / τ ) d T .
A out ( x , t ) exp [ i ϕ out ( x , t ) ] = 1 2 τ 0 { exp [ i ϕ in ( x , t ) ] - exp [ i ϕ in ( x , t - T ) ] } × exp ( - T / τ ) d T ,

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