Abstract

An integrated phase modulator is made by coating single-mode fibers with a radially poled vinylidene fluoride–trifluoroethylene copolymer. The performance of the fiber as an optical phase modulator was demonstrated over a wide frequency range of 20–50 MHz. A phase sensitivity of 2.1 × 10−5 rad/(V/m) per meter of fiber is measured in the low-frequency region and 3.5 × 10−6 rad/(V/m) per meter of fiber is measured in the high-frequency region. At frequencies higher than 1 MHz, the optical response is dominated by radial resonances of the fiber–jacket composite.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. J. Donalds, W. G. French, W. C. Mitchell, R. M. Swinehart, T. Wei, Electron. Lett. 18, 327 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. D. Mermelstein, Appl. Opt. 22, 1006 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Jarzynski, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 3243 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Imai, H. Tanizawa, Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Takase, A. Odajima, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 1916 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Imai, T. Shimizu, Y. Ohtsuka, A. Odajima, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 926 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Furukawa, J. X. Wen, K. Suzuki, Y. Takashina, M. Date, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 829 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Kimura, H. Ohigashi, J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4749 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. B. Hocker, Appl. Opt. 18, 1445 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. N. Lagakos, G. Ku, J. H. Cole, J. A. Bucaro, in Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference/Sixth International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), paper TuJ2.

1987 (2)

M. Imai, T. Shimizu, Y. Ohtsuka, A. Odajima, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 926 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. Kimura, H. Ohigashi, J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4749 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. Imai, H. Tanizawa, Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Takase, A. Odajima, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 1916 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

J. Jarzynski, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 3243 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. Furukawa, J. X. Wen, K. Suzuki, Y. Takashina, M. Date, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 829 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

L. J. Donalds, W. G. French, W. C. Mitchell, R. M. Swinehart, T. Wei, Electron. Lett. 18, 327 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

Bucaro, J. A.

N. Lagakos, G. Ku, J. H. Cole, J. A. Bucaro, in Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference/Sixth International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), paper TuJ2.

Cole, J. H.

N. Lagakos, G. Ku, J. H. Cole, J. A. Bucaro, in Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference/Sixth International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), paper TuJ2.

Date, M.

T. Furukawa, J. X. Wen, K. Suzuki, Y. Takashina, M. Date, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 829 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Donalds, L. J.

L. J. Donalds, W. G. French, W. C. Mitchell, R. M. Swinehart, T. Wei, Electron. Lett. 18, 327 (1982).
[CrossRef]

French, W. G.

L. J. Donalds, W. G. French, W. C. Mitchell, R. M. Swinehart, T. Wei, Electron. Lett. 18, 327 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, T.

T. Furukawa, J. X. Wen, K. Suzuki, Y. Takashina, M. Date, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 829 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hocker, G. B.

Imai, M.

M. Imai, T. Shimizu, Y. Ohtsuka, A. Odajima, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 926 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Imai, H. Tanizawa, Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Takase, A. Odajima, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 1916 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jarzynski, J.

J. Jarzynski, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 3243 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, K.

K. Kimura, H. Ohigashi, J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4749 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ku, G.

N. Lagakos, G. Ku, J. H. Cole, J. A. Bucaro, in Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference/Sixth International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), paper TuJ2.

Lagakos, N.

N. Lagakos, G. Ku, J. H. Cole, J. A. Bucaro, in Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference/Sixth International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), paper TuJ2.

Mermelstein, M. D.

Mitchell, W. C.

L. J. Donalds, W. G. French, W. C. Mitchell, R. M. Swinehart, T. Wei, Electron. Lett. 18, 327 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Odajima, A.

M. Imai, T. Shimizu, Y. Ohtsuka, A. Odajima, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 926 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Imai, H. Tanizawa, Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Takase, A. Odajima, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 1916 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ohigashi, H.

K. Kimura, H. Ohigashi, J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4749 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuka, Y.

M. Imai, T. Shimizu, Y. Ohtsuka, A. Odajima, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 926 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Imai, H. Tanizawa, Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Takase, A. Odajima, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 1916 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, T.

M. Imai, T. Shimizu, Y. Ohtsuka, A. Odajima, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 926 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

T. Furukawa, J. X. Wen, K. Suzuki, Y. Takashina, M. Date, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 829 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Swinehart, R. M.

L. J. Donalds, W. G. French, W. C. Mitchell, R. M. Swinehart, T. Wei, Electron. Lett. 18, 327 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Takase, Y.

M. Imai, H. Tanizawa, Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Takase, A. Odajima, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 1916 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Takashina, Y.

T. Furukawa, J. X. Wen, K. Suzuki, Y. Takashina, M. Date, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 829 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tanizawa, H.

M. Imai, H. Tanizawa, Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Takase, A. Odajima, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 1916 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.

L. J. Donalds, W. G. French, W. C. Mitchell, R. M. Swinehart, T. Wei, Electron. Lett. 18, 327 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wen, J. X.

T. Furukawa, J. X. Wen, K. Suzuki, Y. Takashina, M. Date, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 829 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. J. Donalds, W. G. French, W. C. Mitchell, R. M. Swinehart, T. Wei, Electron. Lett. 18, 327 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

M. Imai, T. Shimizu, Y. Ohtsuka, A. Odajima, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-5, 926 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

T. Furukawa, J. X. Wen, K. Suzuki, Y. Takashina, M. Date, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 829 (1984).
[CrossRef]

K. Kimura, H. Ohigashi, J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4749 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Jarzynski, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 3243 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Imai, H. Tanizawa, Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Takase, A. Odajima, J. Appl. Phys. 60, 1916 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

N. Lagakos, G. Ku, J. H. Cole, J. A. Bucaro, in Technical Digest of Optical Fiber Communication Conference/Sixth International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987), paper TuJ2.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic configuration of an all-fiber phase modulator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated optical phase shift as a function of jacket thickness and fiber radius in the low-frequency, axially unconstrained region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated optical phase shift as a function of jacket thickness and fiber radius in the high-frequency, axially constrained region.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured optical phase shift induced in fiber sample 1 as a function of the frequency of the applied voltage.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured optical phase shift induced in fiber sample 2 as a function of the frequency of the applied voltage.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Elastic Constants and Piezoelectric Coefficients of a Glass Fiber and Unoriented P(VDF/TrFE) Copolymer

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Table 2 Induced Optical Phase Shifts Due to Applied dc Voltages

Equations (1)

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Δ ϕ = k 0 n l { S 3 - n 2 2 [ ( P 11 + P 12 ) S r + P 12 S 3 ] } ,

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