Abstract

Ultrahigh-resolution spectroscopy is limited by the spectral quality of lasers. We describe a servo system that stabilizes a dye laser by reflection in an optical resonator, which provides an error signal. We analyze the error signal to determine the spectral performance of the dye laser, which is shown to have a Gaussian-shaped spectrum with a width of less than 4 kHz.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Houssin, M. Jardino, M. Desaintfuscien, in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. Person, S. Svanberg, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), p. 77.
  2. V. S. Letokhov, V. P. Chebotayev, Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy, V. S. Letokhov, V. P. Chebotayev, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), Vol. 4, p. 155.
  3. J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, Ma Long-Shing, T. Bear, H. G. Robinson, J. Phys. (Paris) C8 Suppl. 12, 42, 59 (1981).
  4. J. Helmcke, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, Appl. Opt. 21, 1686 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. Camy, D. Pinaud, N. Courtier, Hu Chi Chuan, Rev. Phys. Appl. 17, 357 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Rutman, Proc. IEEE 66, 1048 (1978).
    [CrossRef]

1982

G. Camy, D. Pinaud, N. Courtier, Hu Chi Chuan, Rev. Phys. Appl. 17, 357 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Helmcke, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, Appl. Opt. 21, 1686 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, Ma Long-Shing, T. Bear, H. G. Robinson, J. Phys. (Paris) C8 Suppl. 12, 42, 59 (1981).

1978

J. Rutman, Proc. IEEE 66, 1048 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bear, T.

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, Ma Long-Shing, T. Bear, H. G. Robinson, J. Phys. (Paris) C8 Suppl. 12, 42, 59 (1981).

Camy, G.

G. Camy, D. Pinaud, N. Courtier, Hu Chi Chuan, Rev. Phys. Appl. 17, 357 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chebotayev, V. P.

V. S. Letokhov, V. P. Chebotayev, Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy, V. S. Letokhov, V. P. Chebotayev, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), Vol. 4, p. 155.

Chuan, Hu Chi

G. Camy, D. Pinaud, N. Courtier, Hu Chi Chuan, Rev. Phys. Appl. 17, 357 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Courtier, N.

G. Camy, D. Pinaud, N. Courtier, Hu Chi Chuan, Rev. Phys. Appl. 17, 357 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Desaintfuscien, M.

M. Houssin, M. Jardino, M. Desaintfuscien, in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. Person, S. Svanberg, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), p. 77.

Hall, J. L.

J. Helmcke, S. A. Lee, J. L. Hall, Appl. Opt. 21, 1686 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, Ma Long-Shing, T. Bear, H. G. Robinson, J. Phys. (Paris) C8 Suppl. 12, 42, 59 (1981).

Helmcke, J.

Hollberg, L.

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, Ma Long-Shing, T. Bear, H. G. Robinson, J. Phys. (Paris) C8 Suppl. 12, 42, 59 (1981).

Houssin, M.

M. Houssin, M. Jardino, M. Desaintfuscien, in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. Person, S. Svanberg, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), p. 77.

Jardino, M.

M. Houssin, M. Jardino, M. Desaintfuscien, in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. Person, S. Svanberg, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), p. 77.

Lee, S. A.

Letokhov, V. S.

V. S. Letokhov, V. P. Chebotayev, Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy, V. S. Letokhov, V. P. Chebotayev, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), Vol. 4, p. 155.

Long-Shing, Ma

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, Ma Long-Shing, T. Bear, H. G. Robinson, J. Phys. (Paris) C8 Suppl. 12, 42, 59 (1981).

Pinaud, D.

G. Camy, D. Pinaud, N. Courtier, Hu Chi Chuan, Rev. Phys. Appl. 17, 357 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, H. G.

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, Ma Long-Shing, T. Bear, H. G. Robinson, J. Phys. (Paris) C8 Suppl. 12, 42, 59 (1981).

Rutman, J.

J. Rutman, Proc. IEEE 66, 1048 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Phys. (Paris)

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, Ma Long-Shing, T. Bear, H. G. Robinson, J. Phys. (Paris) C8 Suppl. 12, 42, 59 (1981).

Proc. IEEE

J. Rutman, Proc. IEEE 66, 1048 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Phys. Appl.

G. Camy, D. Pinaud, N. Courtier, Hu Chi Chuan, Rev. Phys. Appl. 17, 357 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Houssin, M. Jardino, M. Desaintfuscien, in Laser Spectroscopy VIII, W. Person, S. Svanberg, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1987), p. 77.

V. S. Letokhov, V. P. Chebotayev, Nonlinear Laser Spectroscopy, V. S. Letokhov, V. P. Chebotayev, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), Vol. 4, p. 155.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of the servo system for the frequency stabilization of the dye laser. Lenses L1 and L2 permit adjustments in the FP. EOM, electro-optic modulator; AOM, acousto-optic modulator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental error signal observed by scanning the Fabry–Perot frequency with a piezo mirror mount. The modulation frequency is 35 MHz, and the modulation index δ = 0.7.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral density of the laser frequency fluctuations: (a) when the laser is unlocked, (b) when it is locked. The error signal is analyzed with a spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dye-laser profile. The error signal is compared with two levels separated by 65 Hz, and the time that it spends between these two levels in an observation time of 1 sec versus the average level is drawn. (b) Cumulative probability versus the average level in Galtonian coordinates to show the Gaussian shape of the profile in (a)

Equations (12)

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E = E 0 exp [ i ( ω t + δ sin ω m t ) ] ,
E = E 0 { J 0 ( δ ) exp ( j ω t ) + J 1 ( δ ) exp [ j ( ω + ω m ) t ] + J - 1 ( δ ) exp [ j ( ω - ω m ) t ] } ,
E r = E 0 J 0 ( δ ) [ r 1 - r 2 t 1 2 exp ( - j ω τ ) 1 - r 1 r 2 exp ( - j ω τ ) ] exp ( j ω t ) + E 0 J 1 ( δ ) { r 1 - r 2 t 1 2 exp [ - j ( ω + ω m ) τ ] 1 - r 1 r 2 exp [ - j ( ω + ω m ) τ ] } × exp [ j ( ω + ω m ) t ] - E 0 J 1 ( δ ) × { r 1 - r 2 t 1 2 exp [ - j ( ω - ω m ) τ ] 1 - r 1 r 2 exp [ - j ( ω - ω m ) τ ] } × exp [ j ( ω - ω m ) t ] ,
I = η q E 0 2 h ν J 0 J 1 { { r 1 + r 2 t 1 2 [ r 1 r 2 - exp ( - j ω τ ) ] D } × [ ( r 1 + r 2 t 1 2 { r 1 r 2 - exp [ j ( ω + ω m ) τ ] } D + ) × exp ( - j ω m t ) - ( r 1 + r 2 t 1 2 { r 1 r 2 - exp [ j ( ω - ω m ) τ ] } D - ) × exp ( j ω m t ) ] + c . c . } ,
D = 1 + r 1 2 r 2 2 - 2 r 1 r 2 cos ω τ , D + = 1 + r 1 2 r 2 2 - 2 r 1 r 2 cos ( ω + ω m ) τ , D - = 1 + r 1 2 r 2 2 - 2 r 1 r 2 cos ( ω - ω m ) τ .
S = α [ sin ω τ D - sin ( ω + ω m ) τ D + - sin ( ω - ω m ) τ D - ] ,
V = β sin ω τ D ,
δ V = β τ D ( ω = ω 0 ) δ ω ,
ω max τ = 2 ( 1 - r 1 r 2 ) [ 1 + ( r 1 r 2 ) 2 ] 1 / 2 .
Δ ω τ = 1 - r 1 r 2 r 1 r 2 .
V P P 2 Δ ω = β τ D ( ω = ω 0 + Δ ω ) = β τ 2 D ( ω = ω 0 )
δ ν = 1 2 ( Δ ν V P P ) δ V .

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