Abstract

We describe a simple technique that permits reproducible fabrication of high-quality diffraction gratings with short periods. This technique utilizes in situ monitoring of diffracted light from photoresist gratings during the development process and provides optimum endpoint detection for this process. The effectiveness of the technique has been demonstrated through the fabrication of a distinct grating with a 255-nm period on a GaAs substrate.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. H. Dill, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-22, 440 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. F. Johnson, G. W. Kammlott, K. A. Ingersoll, Appl. Opt. 17, 1165 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Tada, Y. Nakano, “Fabrication technique of semiconductor lasers,” November28, 1986, Japanese patent no. 61-282110 pending.
  4. Y. Nakano, K. Tada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1145 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Suzuki, K. Tada, Thin Solid Films 72, 419 (1980).
    [CrossRef]

1986 (1)

Y. Nakano, K. Tada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1145 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. Suzuki, K. Tada, Thin Solid Films 72, 419 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1975 (1)

F. H. Dill, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-22, 440 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Dill, F. H.

F. H. Dill, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-22, 440 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ingersoll, K. A.

Johnson, L. F.

Kammlott, G. W.

Nakano, Y.

Y. Nakano, K. Tada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1145 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Tada, Y. Nakano, “Fabrication technique of semiconductor lasers,” November28, 1986, Japanese patent no. 61-282110 pending.

Suzuki, A.

A. Suzuki, K. Tada, Thin Solid Films 72, 419 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Tada, K.

Y. Nakano, K. Tada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1145 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Suzuki, K. Tada, Thin Solid Films 72, 419 (1980).
[CrossRef]

K. Tada, Y. Nakano, “Fabrication technique of semiconductor lasers,” November28, 1986, Japanese patent no. 61-282110 pending.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Nakano, K. Tada, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1145 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

F. H. Dill, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-22, 440 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

A. Suzuki, K. Tada, Thin Solid Films 72, 419 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

K. Tada, Y. Nakano, “Fabrication technique of semiconductor lasers,” November28, 1986, Japanese patent no. 61-282110 pending.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration showing the cross-sectional shape of a photoresist grating as a function of time in a developing solution.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

In situ monitoring system for developing diffraction gratings in a photoresist. A→D, analog-to-digital converter, ND, neutral density

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical example of observed signals from the in situ monitoring scheme in which the intensity of diffracted light from a photoresist grating is plotted as a function of development time.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scanning electron micrograph of a reactive-ion-etched diffraction grating on a GaAs substrate. The period is 255 nm, and the depth of the grooves is almost the same as the length of the period. Preceding in situ monitoring of the development is indispensable to obtaining good results.

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