Abstract

A technique for accurate measurement of the linear electro-optic coefficient(s) in crystals that are simultaneously optically active and birefringent is described. It is shown that this technique provides a direct method of measuring field-induced birefringence and so can form the basis of a Bi12SiO20 (or Bi12GeO20) sensor arrangement. The high degree of accuracy obtained in the measurements of the linear electro-optic coefficient in Bi12SiO20 and Bi12GeO20 crystals indicates the particular suitability of these materials in electric-field and voltage-sensor systems with a high dynamic range and for possible waveguiding applications.

© 1988 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Yoshino, Y. Ohno, K. Kurosawa, in Proceedings of Second International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (VDE-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), pp. 55–58.
  2. K. Kyuma, S. Tai, M. Nunoshita, N. Mikami, Y. Ida, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 93 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Yu. V. Gulyaev, Yu. L. Kopylov, V. B. Kravchenko, V. V. Kucha, V. V. Kutsaenko, V. T. Potapov, R. V. Shpilevskii, Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 54, 1820 (1984).
  4. V. V. Kutsaenko, V. T. Potapov, R. V. Shpilevskii, Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 55, 1370 (55).
  5. A. Marrakchi, J. P. Huignard, P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. 24, 131 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. E. Aldrich, S. Hou, M. Harvill, Appl. Phys. 42, 493 (1971).
  7. P. Pellat-Finet, Opt. Commun. 50, 275 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. R. Tanguay, “Czochralski growth and optical properties of bismuth silicon oxide,” Ph.D. dissertation (Yale University, New Haven, Conn., 1977).
  9. A. J. Fox, T. M. Bruton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 360 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. F. Kamyshlov, E. G. Kostsov, Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 53, 765 (1983).
  11. J. P. Huignard, H. Rajbenbach, P. Refregier, L. Solymar, Opt. Eng. 24, 586 (1985).
  12. P. Gunther, Phys. Rep. 93, 199 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1957).
  14. E. Anastassakis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 212 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. C. Lefevre, Electron. Lett. 16, 778 (1980).
    [CrossRef]

1985 (1)

J. P. Huignard, H. Rajbenbach, P. Refregier, L. Solymar, Opt. Eng. 24, 586 (1985).

1984 (2)

Yu. V. Gulyaev, Yu. L. Kopylov, V. B. Kravchenko, V. V. Kucha, V. V. Kutsaenko, V. T. Potapov, R. V. Shpilevskii, Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 54, 1820 (1984).

P. Pellat-Finet, Opt. Commun. 50, 275 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

K. Kyuma, S. Tai, M. Nunoshita, N. Mikami, Y. Ida, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 93 (1983).
[CrossRef]

V. F. Kamyshlov, E. G. Kostsov, Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 53, 765 (1983).

1982 (1)

P. Gunther, Phys. Rep. 93, 199 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

A. Marrakchi, J. P. Huignard, P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. 24, 131 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

H. C. Lefevre, Electron. Lett. 16, 778 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

A. J. Fox, T. M. Bruton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 360 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

E. Anastassakis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 212 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

R. E. Aldrich, S. Hou, M. Harvill, Appl. Phys. 42, 493 (1971).

Aldrich, R. E.

R. E. Aldrich, S. Hou, M. Harvill, Appl. Phys. 42, 493 (1971).

Anastassakis, E.

E. Anastassakis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 212 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bruton, T. M.

A. J. Fox, T. M. Bruton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 360 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Fox, A. J.

A. J. Fox, T. M. Bruton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 360 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Gulyaev, Yu. V.

Yu. V. Gulyaev, Yu. L. Kopylov, V. B. Kravchenko, V. V. Kucha, V. V. Kutsaenko, V. T. Potapov, R. V. Shpilevskii, Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 54, 1820 (1984).

Gunter, P.

A. Marrakchi, J. P. Huignard, P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. 24, 131 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gunther, P.

P. Gunther, Phys. Rep. 93, 199 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Harvill, M.

R. E. Aldrich, S. Hou, M. Harvill, Appl. Phys. 42, 493 (1971).

Hou, S.

R. E. Aldrich, S. Hou, M. Harvill, Appl. Phys. 42, 493 (1971).

Huignard, J. P.

J. P. Huignard, H. Rajbenbach, P. Refregier, L. Solymar, Opt. Eng. 24, 586 (1985).

A. Marrakchi, J. P. Huignard, P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. 24, 131 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ida, Y.

K. Kyuma, S. Tai, M. Nunoshita, N. Mikami, Y. Ida, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 93 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kamyshlov, V. F.

V. F. Kamyshlov, E. G. Kostsov, Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 53, 765 (1983).

Kopylov, Yu. L.

Yu. V. Gulyaev, Yu. L. Kopylov, V. B. Kravchenko, V. V. Kucha, V. V. Kutsaenko, V. T. Potapov, R. V. Shpilevskii, Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 54, 1820 (1984).

Kostsov, E. G.

V. F. Kamyshlov, E. G. Kostsov, Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 53, 765 (1983).

Kravchenko, V. B.

Yu. V. Gulyaev, Yu. L. Kopylov, V. B. Kravchenko, V. V. Kucha, V. V. Kutsaenko, V. T. Potapov, R. V. Shpilevskii, Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 54, 1820 (1984).

Kucha, V. V.

Yu. V. Gulyaev, Yu. L. Kopylov, V. B. Kravchenko, V. V. Kucha, V. V. Kutsaenko, V. T. Potapov, R. V. Shpilevskii, Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 54, 1820 (1984).

Kurosawa, K.

T. Yoshino, Y. Ohno, K. Kurosawa, in Proceedings of Second International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (VDE-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), pp. 55–58.

Kutsaenko, V. V.

Yu. V. Gulyaev, Yu. L. Kopylov, V. B. Kravchenko, V. V. Kucha, V. V. Kutsaenko, V. T. Potapov, R. V. Shpilevskii, Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 54, 1820 (1984).

V. V. Kutsaenko, V. T. Potapov, R. V. Shpilevskii, Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 55, 1370 (55).

Kyuma, K.

K. Kyuma, S. Tai, M. Nunoshita, N. Mikami, Y. Ida, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 93 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lefevre, H. C.

H. C. Lefevre, Electron. Lett. 16, 778 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Marrakchi, A.

A. Marrakchi, J. P. Huignard, P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. 24, 131 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mikami, N.

K. Kyuma, S. Tai, M. Nunoshita, N. Mikami, Y. Ida, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 93 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nunoshita, M.

K. Kyuma, S. Tai, M. Nunoshita, N. Mikami, Y. Ida, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 93 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nye, J. F.

J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1957).

Ohno, Y.

T. Yoshino, Y. Ohno, K. Kurosawa, in Proceedings of Second International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (VDE-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), pp. 55–58.

Pellat-Finet, P.

P. Pellat-Finet, Opt. Commun. 50, 275 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Potapov, V. T.

Yu. V. Gulyaev, Yu. L. Kopylov, V. B. Kravchenko, V. V. Kucha, V. V. Kutsaenko, V. T. Potapov, R. V. Shpilevskii, Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 54, 1820 (1984).

V. V. Kutsaenko, V. T. Potapov, R. V. Shpilevskii, Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 55, 1370 (55).

Rajbenbach, H.

J. P. Huignard, H. Rajbenbach, P. Refregier, L. Solymar, Opt. Eng. 24, 586 (1985).

Refregier, P.

J. P. Huignard, H. Rajbenbach, P. Refregier, L. Solymar, Opt. Eng. 24, 586 (1985).

Shpilevskii, R. V.

Yu. V. Gulyaev, Yu. L. Kopylov, V. B. Kravchenko, V. V. Kucha, V. V. Kutsaenko, V. T. Potapov, R. V. Shpilevskii, Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 54, 1820 (1984).

V. V. Kutsaenko, V. T. Potapov, R. V. Shpilevskii, Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 55, 1370 (55).

Solymar, L.

J. P. Huignard, H. Rajbenbach, P. Refregier, L. Solymar, Opt. Eng. 24, 586 (1985).

Tai, S.

K. Kyuma, S. Tai, M. Nunoshita, N. Mikami, Y. Ida, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 93 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tanguay, A. R.

A. R. Tanguay, “Czochralski growth and optical properties of bismuth silicon oxide,” Ph.D. dissertation (Yale University, New Haven, Conn., 1977).

Yoshino, T.

T. Yoshino, Y. Ohno, K. Kurosawa, in Proceedings of Second International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (VDE-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), pp. 55–58.

Appl. Phys. (2)

A. Marrakchi, J. P. Huignard, P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. 24, 131 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Aldrich, S. Hou, M. Harvill, Appl. Phys. 42, 493 (1971).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. J. Fox, T. M. Bruton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 360 (1975).
[CrossRef]

E. Anastassakis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 212 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. C. Lefevre, Electron. Lett. 16, 778 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

K. Kyuma, S. Tai, M. Nunoshita, N. Mikami, Y. Ida, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 93 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Pellat-Finet, Opt. Commun. 50, 275 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. P. Huignard, H. Rajbenbach, P. Refregier, L. Solymar, Opt. Eng. 24, 586 (1985).

Phys. Rep. (1)

P. Gunther, Phys. Rep. 93, 199 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Zh. Tekh. Fiz. (3)

Yu. V. Gulyaev, Yu. L. Kopylov, V. B. Kravchenko, V. V. Kucha, V. V. Kutsaenko, V. T. Potapov, R. V. Shpilevskii, Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 54, 1820 (1984).

V. V. Kutsaenko, V. T. Potapov, R. V. Shpilevskii, Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 55, 1370 (55).

V. F. Kamyshlov, E. G. Kostsov, Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 53, 765 (1983).

Other (3)

A. R. Tanguay, “Czochralski growth and optical properties of bismuth silicon oxide,” Ph.D. dissertation (Yale University, New Haven, Conn., 1977).

J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1957).

T. Yoshino, Y. Ohno, K. Kurosawa, in Proceedings of Second International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (VDE-Verlag, Berlin, 1984), pp. 55–58.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement for measuring r41 in BSO.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical plot of results in bulk sample of BSO at (a) 633 nm and (b) 850 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical graph of results for a 200-μm sample of BSO.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ = ( 2 π / λ ) n 0 2 r 41 V .
δ = ( 2 π / λ ) n 0 2 r 41 ( Vd / L ) .
δ = ( π / λ ) n 0 2 r 41 ( Vd / L ) ,
tan ( β ) = 2 ρ / δ
r 41 = λρ n 0 π L d cot β V .

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