Abstract

Second-harmonic generation was recently observed in an amorphous vinylidene cyanide/vinyl acetate copolymer film by using a pulsed Nd:YAG 1.06-μm laser.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, M. F. Rubner, M. K. Thakur, S. K. Tripathy, J. P. Georger, J. V. Hryniewicz, OM 85 Basic Properties of Optical Materials, NBS Spec. Publ.697, 40 (1985).
  2. T. Takahashi, M. Date, E. Fukada, Ferroelectrics 32, 73 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Furukawa, J. X. Wen, K. Suzuki, Y. Takashina, M. Date, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 829 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Furukawa, H. Matsuzaki, M. Shiina, Y. Tajitsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L661 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. I. Seo, M. Sasaki, Y. Tamura, K. Saito, S. Miyata, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Electrets (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1985), p. 808.
  6. J. G. Bergman, J. H. McFee, G. R. Crane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 203 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. H. McFee, J. G. Bergman, G. R. Crane, Ferroelectrics 3, 305 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Sato, H. Gamo, in Technical Digest of the First Optoelectronics Conference (Institute of Electronics and Communication Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1986), p. 72.
  9. H. Sato, H. Gamo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, L990 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. So far, we have supposed that the dimension of the cluster is of the order of tens of nanometers in the VDCN/VAc copolymer in contrast to 1 μm for the fluoride polymer, but an experimental verification of this assumption has yet to be made.
  11. J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Oxford U. Press, London, 1969), p. 123.
  12. Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984), p. 86.
  13. T. Furukawa, M. Date, K. Nakajima, T. Kosaka, I. Seo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1178 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

1986

H. Sato, H. Gamo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, L990 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Furukawa, M. Date, K. Nakajima, T. Kosaka, I. Seo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1178 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

T. Furukawa, H. Matsuzaki, M. Shiina, Y. Tajitsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L661 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

T. Furukawa, J. X. Wen, K. Suzuki, Y. Takashina, M. Date, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 829 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981

T. Takahashi, M. Date, E. Fukada, Ferroelectrics 32, 73 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1972

J. H. McFee, J. G. Bergman, G. R. Crane, Ferroelectrics 3, 305 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971

J. G. Bergman, J. H. McFee, G. R. Crane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 203 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, J. G.

J. H. McFee, J. G. Bergman, G. R. Crane, Ferroelectrics 3, 305 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Bergman, J. H. McFee, G. R. Crane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 203 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Carter, G. M.

G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, M. F. Rubner, M. K. Thakur, S. K. Tripathy, J. P. Georger, J. V. Hryniewicz, OM 85 Basic Properties of Optical Materials, NBS Spec. Publ.697, 40 (1985).

Chen, Y. J.

G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, M. F. Rubner, M. K. Thakur, S. K. Tripathy, J. P. Georger, J. V. Hryniewicz, OM 85 Basic Properties of Optical Materials, NBS Spec. Publ.697, 40 (1985).

Crane, G. R.

J. H. McFee, J. G. Bergman, G. R. Crane, Ferroelectrics 3, 305 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Bergman, J. H. McFee, G. R. Crane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 203 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Date, M.

T. Furukawa, M. Date, K. Nakajima, T. Kosaka, I. Seo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1178 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Furukawa, J. X. Wen, K. Suzuki, Y. Takashina, M. Date, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 829 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. Takahashi, M. Date, E. Fukada, Ferroelectrics 32, 73 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Fukada, E.

T. Takahashi, M. Date, E. Fukada, Ferroelectrics 32, 73 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, T.

T. Furukawa, M. Date, K. Nakajima, T. Kosaka, I. Seo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1178 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Furukawa, H. Matsuzaki, M. Shiina, Y. Tajitsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L661 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. Furukawa, J. X. Wen, K. Suzuki, Y. Takashina, M. Date, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 829 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gamo, H.

H. Sato, H. Gamo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, L990 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. Sato, H. Gamo, in Technical Digest of the First Optoelectronics Conference (Institute of Electronics and Communication Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1986), p. 72.

Georger, J. P.

G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, M. F. Rubner, M. K. Thakur, S. K. Tripathy, J. P. Georger, J. V. Hryniewicz, OM 85 Basic Properties of Optical Materials, NBS Spec. Publ.697, 40 (1985).

Hryniewicz, J. V.

G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, M. F. Rubner, M. K. Thakur, S. K. Tripathy, J. P. Georger, J. V. Hryniewicz, OM 85 Basic Properties of Optical Materials, NBS Spec. Publ.697, 40 (1985).

Kosaka, T.

T. Furukawa, M. Date, K. Nakajima, T. Kosaka, I. Seo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1178 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Matsuzaki, H.

T. Furukawa, H. Matsuzaki, M. Shiina, Y. Tajitsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L661 (1985).
[CrossRef]

McFee, J. H.

J. H. McFee, J. G. Bergman, G. R. Crane, Ferroelectrics 3, 305 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Bergman, J. H. McFee, G. R. Crane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 203 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Miyata, S.

I. Seo, M. Sasaki, Y. Tamura, K. Saito, S. Miyata, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Electrets (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1985), p. 808.

Nakajima, K.

T. Furukawa, M. Date, K. Nakajima, T. Kosaka, I. Seo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1178 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nye, J. F.

J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Oxford U. Press, London, 1969), p. 123.

Rubner, M. F.

G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, M. F. Rubner, M. K. Thakur, S. K. Tripathy, J. P. Georger, J. V. Hryniewicz, OM 85 Basic Properties of Optical Materials, NBS Spec. Publ.697, 40 (1985).

Saito, K.

I. Seo, M. Sasaki, Y. Tamura, K. Saito, S. Miyata, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Electrets (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1985), p. 808.

Sasaki, M.

I. Seo, M. Sasaki, Y. Tamura, K. Saito, S. Miyata, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Electrets (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1985), p. 808.

Sato, H.

H. Sato, H. Gamo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, L990 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. Sato, H. Gamo, in Technical Digest of the First Optoelectronics Conference (Institute of Electronics and Communication Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1986), p. 72.

Seo, I.

T. Furukawa, M. Date, K. Nakajima, T. Kosaka, I. Seo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1178 (1986).
[CrossRef]

I. Seo, M. Sasaki, Y. Tamura, K. Saito, S. Miyata, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Electrets (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1985), p. 808.

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984), p. 86.

Shiina, M.

T. Furukawa, H. Matsuzaki, M. Shiina, Y. Tajitsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L661 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, K.

T. Furukawa, J. X. Wen, K. Suzuki, Y. Takashina, M. Date, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 829 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tajitsu, Y.

T. Furukawa, H. Matsuzaki, M. Shiina, Y. Tajitsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L661 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, T.

T. Takahashi, M. Date, E. Fukada, Ferroelectrics 32, 73 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Takashina, Y.

T. Furukawa, J. X. Wen, K. Suzuki, Y. Takashina, M. Date, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 829 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, Y.

I. Seo, M. Sasaki, Y. Tamura, K. Saito, S. Miyata, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Electrets (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1985), p. 808.

Thakur, M. K.

G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, M. F. Rubner, M. K. Thakur, S. K. Tripathy, J. P. Georger, J. V. Hryniewicz, OM 85 Basic Properties of Optical Materials, NBS Spec. Publ.697, 40 (1985).

Tripathy, S. K.

G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, M. F. Rubner, M. K. Thakur, S. K. Tripathy, J. P. Georger, J. V. Hryniewicz, OM 85 Basic Properties of Optical Materials, NBS Spec. Publ.697, 40 (1985).

Wen, J. X.

T. Furukawa, J. X. Wen, K. Suzuki, Y. Takashina, M. Date, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 829 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. G. Bergman, J. H. McFee, G. R. Crane, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 203 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics

J. H. McFee, J. G. Bergman, G. R. Crane, Ferroelectrics 3, 305 (1972).
[CrossRef]

T. Takahashi, M. Date, E. Fukada, Ferroelectrics 32, 73 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

T. Furukawa, J. X. Wen, K. Suzuki, Y. Takashina, M. Date, J. Appl. Phys. 56, 829 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

T. Furukawa, H. Matsuzaki, M. Shiina, Y. Tajitsu, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L661 (1985).
[CrossRef]

H. Sato, H. Gamo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, L990 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. Furukawa, M. Date, K. Nakajima, T. Kosaka, I. Seo, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 25, 1178 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, M. F. Rubner, M. K. Thakur, S. K. Tripathy, J. P. Georger, J. V. Hryniewicz, OM 85 Basic Properties of Optical Materials, NBS Spec. Publ.697, 40 (1985).

H. Sato, H. Gamo, in Technical Digest of the First Optoelectronics Conference (Institute of Electronics and Communication Engineers of Japan, Tokyo, 1986), p. 72.

So far, we have supposed that the dimension of the cluster is of the order of tens of nanometers in the VDCN/VAc copolymer in contrast to 1 μm for the fluoride polymer, but an experimental verification of this assumption has yet to be made.

J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Oxford U. Press, London, 1969), p. 123.

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984), p. 86.

I. Seo, M. Sasaki, Y. Tamura, K. Saito, S. Miyata, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Electrets (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1985), p. 808.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: (a) apparatus and (b) configuration of the copolymer film and related coordinates.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Observed SHG signal, in comparison with input fundamental waveform, where 5 mV/division is the scale for the upper trace, showing the input beam, and 5 V/division is the scale for the lower trace, showing the SHG signal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SHG peak power versus input peak power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Observed green spot of the SHG signal at 0.53 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SHG peak power versus distance along wedge (the x direction).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specifications of P(VDCN/VAc) Copolymer Film Used in the Experiments

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P x = 2 χ 15 E z E x , P y = 2 χ 24 E y E z , P z = χ 31 E x 2 + χ 32 E y 2 + χ 33 E z 2 ,
P 2 ω ( y ) = 32 π 3 ω 2 c 3 ( ω ) [ ( 2 ω ) ] 1 / 2 | χ i j | 2 y 2 sinc 2 ( Δ k y / 2 ) p ω 2 ( 0 ) A ,
Δ k = 2 k ω k 2 ω .

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