Abstract

Depression of the surface index of TiLiNbO3 channel waveguides by secondary diffusion of MgO forms a buffer layer that optically isolates the guided modes from attenuation caused by electrodes placed over the guides. For x-cut, z-propagating mode-conversion devices, we find high stability to optical drift when a dc voltage as high as 60 V is applied to electrodes (typical gap of 5 μm) to establish bias operating points. Photoconductivity is found to limit the long-term stability. Devices operating at 0.633-μm wavelength generally suffer significant drift in their mode-conversion efficiency when 100 μW or more of throughput power is present and a bias of 14 V is used. 10-μW throughput at the same wavelength is found to be stable over an 8-h period. At 0.8-μm wavelength, bias voltages as high as 60 V may be used for stable operation even at 100-μW optical throughput.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Noda, M. Fukuma, S. Saito, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3150 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Komatsu, M. Kondo, Y. Ohta, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), post-deadline paper 2.
  3. S. Thaniyavarn, Opt. Lett. 11, 39 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. A. Sanford, W. C. Robinson, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on the Applications of Ferroelectrics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1986), paper 1A-2.
  5. For a comprehensive review of the proton-exchange process the reader should consultS. M. Al-Shukri, J. Duffy, R. M. De La Rue, M. N. Armenise, C. Canali, A. Carnera, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 578, 2 (1985).
  6. N. A. Sanford, W. C. Robinson, Opt. Lett. 10, 190 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

1985 (2)

For a comprehensive review of the proton-exchange process the reader should consultS. M. Al-Shukri, J. Duffy, R. M. De La Rue, M. N. Armenise, C. Canali, A. Carnera, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 578, 2 (1985).

N. A. Sanford, W. C. Robinson, Opt. Lett. 10, 190 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

J. Noda, M. Fukuma, S. Saito, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3150 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Al-Shukri, S. M.

For a comprehensive review of the proton-exchange process the reader should consultS. M. Al-Shukri, J. Duffy, R. M. De La Rue, M. N. Armenise, C. Canali, A. Carnera, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 578, 2 (1985).

Armenise, M. N.

For a comprehensive review of the proton-exchange process the reader should consultS. M. Al-Shukri, J. Duffy, R. M. De La Rue, M. N. Armenise, C. Canali, A. Carnera, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 578, 2 (1985).

Canali, C.

For a comprehensive review of the proton-exchange process the reader should consultS. M. Al-Shukri, J. Duffy, R. M. De La Rue, M. N. Armenise, C. Canali, A. Carnera, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 578, 2 (1985).

Carnera, A.

For a comprehensive review of the proton-exchange process the reader should consultS. M. Al-Shukri, J. Duffy, R. M. De La Rue, M. N. Armenise, C. Canali, A. Carnera, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 578, 2 (1985).

De La Rue, R. M.

For a comprehensive review of the proton-exchange process the reader should consultS. M. Al-Shukri, J. Duffy, R. M. De La Rue, M. N. Armenise, C. Canali, A. Carnera, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 578, 2 (1985).

Duffy, J.

For a comprehensive review of the proton-exchange process the reader should consultS. M. Al-Shukri, J. Duffy, R. M. De La Rue, M. N. Armenise, C. Canali, A. Carnera, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 578, 2 (1985).

Fukuma, M.

J. Noda, M. Fukuma, S. Saito, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3150 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Komatsu, K.

K. Komatsu, M. Kondo, Y. Ohta, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), post-deadline paper 2.

Kondo, M.

K. Komatsu, M. Kondo, Y. Ohta, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), post-deadline paper 2.

Noda, J.

J. Noda, M. Fukuma, S. Saito, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3150 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, Y.

K. Komatsu, M. Kondo, Y. Ohta, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), post-deadline paper 2.

Robinson, W. C.

N. A. Sanford, W. C. Robinson, Opt. Lett. 10, 190 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Sanford, W. C. Robinson, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on the Applications of Ferroelectrics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1986), paper 1A-2.

Saito, S.

J. Noda, M. Fukuma, S. Saito, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3150 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sanford, N. A.

N. A. Sanford, W. C. Robinson, Opt. Lett. 10, 190 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Sanford, W. C. Robinson, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on the Applications of Ferroelectrics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1986), paper 1A-2.

Thaniyavarn, S.

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Noda, M. Fukuma, S. Saito, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3150 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

For a comprehensive review of the proton-exchange process the reader should consultS. M. Al-Shukri, J. Duffy, R. M. De La Rue, M. N. Armenise, C. Canali, A. Carnera, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 578, 2 (1985).

Other (2)

N. A. Sanford, W. C. Robinson, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on the Applications of Ferroelectrics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1986), paper 1A-2.

K. Komatsu, M. Kondo, Y. Ohta, in Digest of Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), post-deadline paper 2.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Response of mode converter 109-2 to 15-V (peak-to-peak) ac modulation applied to center electrode with 0-V bias applied to outer electrodes. Horizontal scale, 5 V/division; vertical scale, photodiode response. Input polarization is TM; 0.632-μm wavelength at 10-μW throughput. (b) Response of mode converter 109-2 when 14-V dc bias is applied to outer electrode in the presence of 15-V ac modulation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Drift of mode-conversion efficiency after 4-h continuous operation for 10-μW throughput power at 0.632-μm wavelength. Same bias and modulation voltage as in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Drift of mode-conversion efficiency after 5 min when power is increased to 100 μW at 0.632-μm wavelength. Same bias and modulation voltage as in Fig. 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Mode converter 117-2-1 operating at 0.82-μm wavelength. 0-V bias, modulation 15 V ac, horizontal scale 5 V/division, 100-μW optical throughput, (b) Same device and conditions as for (a). Applied bias of 34 V.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Same device and conditions as in Fig. 4. Drift in mode-conversion efficiency after 2-h continuous operation. Device is found to maintain this operation state for an 8-h observation period.

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