Abstract

The quadrupole mode and the retardation-broadened, wavelength-shifted dipole mode have been observed in the extinction and elastic-scattering spectra of two-dimensional arrays of Au microstructures immersed in air, water, and toluene. The electron-beam lithographically produced Au microstructures, resembling hemispheres with radius ∼100 nm, were arranged in a square lattice with a center-to-center separation of 500 nm and situated on a 5-nm-thick layer of Cr coated on an optically flat quartz substrate.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. A. Creighton, C. G. Blatchford, M. G. Albrecht, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 75, 790 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. I. Gersten, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 5779 (1980);S. L. McCall, P. M. Platzman, P. A. Wolff, Phys. Lett. A 77, 381 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  3. W. T. Doyle, Phys. Rev. 111, 1067 (1958).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Wokaun, J. P. Gordon, P. F. Liao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 957 (1982);W. T. Doyle, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1031 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  5. W. T. Doyle, A. Agarwal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 305 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  6. B. J. Messinger, K. U. von Raben, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Phys. Rev. B 24, 649 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. Chauvaux, A. Meessen, Thin Solid Films 62, 125 (1979);W. Kleeman, Z. Phys. 215, 113 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. F. Liao, J. G. Bergman, D. S. Chemla, A. Wokaun, J. Melngailis, A. M. Hawryluk, N. P. Economou, Chem. Phys. Lett. 82, 355 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  9. P. F. Liao, M. B. Stern, Opt. Lett. 7, 483 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, H. Massoudi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 977 (1983);Phys. Rev. B 27, 7251 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  11. The ∊(ω) of Au was obtained from J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, E. E. Koch, Physics Data, Optical Properties of Metals, Part II (Fachinformationszentrum, Karlsruhe, 1981), p. 49.
  12. M. Inoue, K. Ohtaka, Phys. Rev. B 26, 3487 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  13. K. A. Fuller, G. W. Kattawar, R. T. Wang, Appl. Opt. 25, 2521 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. B. Schlicht, K. F. Wall, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 800 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  15. F. Claro, Solid State Commun. 49, 3 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. Meier, A. Wokaun, P. F. Liao, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 931 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  17. K. T. Carron, W. Fluhr, M. Meier, A. Wokaun, H. W. Lehmann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 430 (1986).
    [Crossref]

1987 (1)

1986 (2)

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

F. Claro, Solid State Commun. 49, 3 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, H. Massoudi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 977 (1983);Phys. Rev. B 27, 7251 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (3)

M. Inoue, K. Ohtaka, Phys. Rev. B 26, 3487 (1982).
[Crossref]

P. F. Liao, M. B. Stern, Opt. Lett. 7, 483 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wokaun, J. P. Gordon, P. F. Liao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 957 (1982);W. T. Doyle, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1031 (1985).
[Crossref]

1981 (2)

B. J. Messinger, K. U. von Raben, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Phys. Rev. B 24, 649 (1981).
[Crossref]

P. F. Liao, J. G. Bergman, D. S. Chemla, A. Wokaun, J. Melngailis, A. M. Hawryluk, N. P. Economou, Chem. Phys. Lett. 82, 355 (1981).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

J. I. Gersten, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 5779 (1980);S. L. McCall, P. M. Platzman, P. A. Wolff, Phys. Lett. A 77, 381 (1980).
[Crossref]

1979 (2)

J. A. Creighton, C. G. Blatchford, M. G. Albrecht, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 75, 790 (1979).
[Crossref]

R. Chauvaux, A. Meessen, Thin Solid Films 62, 125 (1979);W. Kleeman, Z. Phys. 215, 113 (1968).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

1958 (1)

W. T. Doyle, Phys. Rev. 111, 1067 (1958).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A.

Albrecht, M. G.

J. A. Creighton, C. G. Blatchford, M. G. Albrecht, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 75, 790 (1979).
[Crossref]

Barber, P. W.

B. Schlicht, K. F. Wall, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 800 (1987).
[Crossref]

P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, H. Massoudi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 977 (1983);Phys. Rev. B 27, 7251 (1983).
[Crossref]

B. J. Messinger, K. U. von Raben, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Phys. Rev. B 24, 649 (1981).
[Crossref]

Bergman, J. G.

P. F. Liao, J. G. Bergman, D. S. Chemla, A. Wokaun, J. Melngailis, A. M. Hawryluk, N. P. Economou, Chem. Phys. Lett. 82, 355 (1981).
[Crossref]

Blatchford, C. G.

J. A. Creighton, C. G. Blatchford, M. G. Albrecht, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 75, 790 (1979).
[Crossref]

Carron, K. T.

Chang, R. K.

B. Schlicht, K. F. Wall, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 800 (1987).
[Crossref]

P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, H. Massoudi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 977 (1983);Phys. Rev. B 27, 7251 (1983).
[Crossref]

B. J. Messinger, K. U. von Raben, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Phys. Rev. B 24, 649 (1981).
[Crossref]

Chauvaux, R.

R. Chauvaux, A. Meessen, Thin Solid Films 62, 125 (1979);W. Kleeman, Z. Phys. 215, 113 (1968).
[Crossref]

Chemla, D. S.

P. F. Liao, J. G. Bergman, D. S. Chemla, A. Wokaun, J. Melngailis, A. M. Hawryluk, N. P. Economou, Chem. Phys. Lett. 82, 355 (1981).
[Crossref]

Claro, F.

F. Claro, Solid State Commun. 49, 3 (1984).
[Crossref]

Creighton, J. A.

J. A. Creighton, C. G. Blatchford, M. G. Albrecht, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 75, 790 (1979).
[Crossref]

Doyle, W. T.

Economou, N. P.

P. F. Liao, J. G. Bergman, D. S. Chemla, A. Wokaun, J. Melngailis, A. M. Hawryluk, N. P. Economou, Chem. Phys. Lett. 82, 355 (1981).
[Crossref]

Fluhr, W.

Fuller, K. A.

Gersten, J. I.

J. I. Gersten, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 5779 (1980);S. L. McCall, P. M. Platzman, P. A. Wolff, Phys. Lett. A 77, 381 (1980).
[Crossref]

Gordon, J. P.

A. Wokaun, J. P. Gordon, P. F. Liao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 957 (1982);W. T. Doyle, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1031 (1985).
[Crossref]

Hawryluk, A. M.

P. F. Liao, J. G. Bergman, D. S. Chemla, A. Wokaun, J. Melngailis, A. M. Hawryluk, N. P. Economou, Chem. Phys. Lett. 82, 355 (1981).
[Crossref]

Inoue, M.

M. Inoue, K. Ohtaka, Phys. Rev. B 26, 3487 (1982).
[Crossref]

Kattawar, G. W.

Koch, E. E.

The ∊(ω) of Au was obtained from J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, E. E. Koch, Physics Data, Optical Properties of Metals, Part II (Fachinformationszentrum, Karlsruhe, 1981), p. 49.

Krafka, C.

The ∊(ω) of Au was obtained from J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, E. E. Koch, Physics Data, Optical Properties of Metals, Part II (Fachinformationszentrum, Karlsruhe, 1981), p. 49.

Lehmann, H. W.

Liao, P. F.

M. Meier, A. Wokaun, P. F. Liao, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 931 (1985).
[Crossref]

P. F. Liao, M. B. Stern, Opt. Lett. 7, 483 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Wokaun, J. P. Gordon, P. F. Liao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 957 (1982);W. T. Doyle, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1031 (1985).
[Crossref]

P. F. Liao, J. G. Bergman, D. S. Chemla, A. Wokaun, J. Melngailis, A. M. Hawryluk, N. P. Economou, Chem. Phys. Lett. 82, 355 (1981).
[Crossref]

Lynch, D. W.

The ∊(ω) of Au was obtained from J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, E. E. Koch, Physics Data, Optical Properties of Metals, Part II (Fachinformationszentrum, Karlsruhe, 1981), p. 49.

Massoudi, H.

P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, H. Massoudi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 977 (1983);Phys. Rev. B 27, 7251 (1983).
[Crossref]

Meessen, A.

R. Chauvaux, A. Meessen, Thin Solid Films 62, 125 (1979);W. Kleeman, Z. Phys. 215, 113 (1968).
[Crossref]

Meier, M.

Melngailis, J.

P. F. Liao, J. G. Bergman, D. S. Chemla, A. Wokaun, J. Melngailis, A. M. Hawryluk, N. P. Economou, Chem. Phys. Lett. 82, 355 (1981).
[Crossref]

Messinger, B. J.

B. J. Messinger, K. U. von Raben, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Phys. Rev. B 24, 649 (1981).
[Crossref]

Ohtaka, K.

M. Inoue, K. Ohtaka, Phys. Rev. B 26, 3487 (1982).
[Crossref]

Schlicht, B.

Stern, M. B.

von Raben, K. U.

B. J. Messinger, K. U. von Raben, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Phys. Rev. B 24, 649 (1981).
[Crossref]

Wall, K. F.

Wang, R. T.

Weaver, J. H.

The ∊(ω) of Au was obtained from J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, E. E. Koch, Physics Data, Optical Properties of Metals, Part II (Fachinformationszentrum, Karlsruhe, 1981), p. 49.

Wokaun, A.

K. T. Carron, W. Fluhr, M. Meier, A. Wokaun, H. W. Lehmann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 430 (1986).
[Crossref]

M. Meier, A. Wokaun, P. F. Liao, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 931 (1985).
[Crossref]

A. Wokaun, J. P. Gordon, P. F. Liao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 957 (1982);W. T. Doyle, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1031 (1985).
[Crossref]

P. F. Liao, J. G. Bergman, D. S. Chemla, A. Wokaun, J. Melngailis, A. M. Hawryluk, N. P. Economou, Chem. Phys. Lett. 82, 355 (1981).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. F. Liao, J. G. Bergman, D. S. Chemla, A. Wokaun, J. Melngailis, A. M. Hawryluk, N. P. Economou, Chem. Phys. Lett. 82, 355 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. I. Gersten, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 5779 (1980);S. L. McCall, P. M. Platzman, P. A. Wolff, Phys. Lett. A 77, 381 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 (1)

J. A. Creighton, C. G. Blatchford, M. G. Albrecht, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2 75, 790 (1979).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

W. T. Doyle, Phys. Rev. 111, 1067 (1958).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

B. J. Messinger, K. U. von Raben, R. K. Chang, P. W. Barber, Phys. Rev. B 24, 649 (1981).
[Crossref]

M. Inoue, K. Ohtaka, Phys. Rev. B 26, 3487 (1982).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. Wokaun, J. P. Gordon, P. F. Liao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 957 (1982);W. T. Doyle, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 1031 (1985).
[Crossref]

P. W. Barber, R. K. Chang, H. Massoudi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 977 (1983);Phys. Rev. B 27, 7251 (1983).
[Crossref]

Solid State Commun. (1)

F. Claro, Solid State Commun. 49, 3 (1984).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

R. Chauvaux, A. Meessen, Thin Solid Films 62, 125 (1979);W. Kleeman, Z. Phys. 215, 113 (1968).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

The ∊(ω) of Au was obtained from J. H. Weaver, C. Krafka, D. W. Lynch, E. E. Koch, Physics Data, Optical Properties of Metals, Part II (Fachinformationszentrum, Karlsruhe, 1981), p. 49.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron microscope photographs of a microstructure array with a = 100 nm and d = 400 nm taken (a) normal to the array plane (a) and (b) at an angle of 45°.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized extinction spectra for Au microstructure array (a = 100 nm and d = 500 nm) with electric field in the plane of the array. The array is immersed in (a) air, (b) water, and (c) toluene. The elastic-scattering spectrum was detected with a scattering angle of 120° (c). D and Q indicate the dipole and quadrupole modes, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Lorenz–Mie calculated extinction and elastic-scattering efficiency for a Au sphere (a = 100 nm) surrounded by (a) air, (b) water, and (c) toluene. D, Q, and O indicate the dipole, quadrupole, and octapole modes, respectively.

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