Abstract

Second-harmonic generation in the form of Čerenkov radiation has been used to make direct, contact-free measurements of the effective indices of guided modes in LiNbO3 channel waveguides. X-cut substrates were used, and channels oriented along the y axis were formed by either proton exchange or titanium indiffusion. For end-fire TE excitation, the Čerenkov harmonic radiates forward at a shallow angle into the substrate, leaves the output facet of the substrate, and appears as bright bands in the far field. These bands are seen to form a one-to-one correspondence with the m lines that are due to guided modes when a prism coupler is simultaneously clamped to the sample surface. The effective indices of the guided modes can be obtained by a simple calculation that involves only the substrate index and the angle at which the Čerenkov harmonic is radiated into the substrate. This technique permits effective index measurements of cladded waveguides where prism coupler measurements cannot be made. Examples of the technique in which index oil is used as a guide overlayer are given.

© 1987 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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1986 (1)

N. A. Sanford, W. C. Robinson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3 (13), P114 (1986).

1985 (4)

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, J. Appl. Phys. 58, R57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Lunt, G. E. Peterson, R. J. Holmes, Y. S. Kim, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 578, 22 (1985).

N. A. Sanford, W. E. Lee, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 578, 7 (1985).

N. A. Sanford, W. C. Robinson, Opt. Lett. 10, 190 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

1977 (1)

1973 (1)

Burns, W. K.

Gialorenzi, T. G.

Holmes, R. J.

S. R. Lunt, G. E. Peterson, R. J. Holmes, Y. S. Kim, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 578, 22 (1985).

Kim, Y. S.

S. R. Lunt, G. E. Peterson, R. J. Holmes, Y. S. Kim, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 578, 22 (1985).

Komatsu, K.

K. Komatsu, M. Kondo, Y. Ohta, in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), postdeadline paper 2.

Kondo, M.

K. Komatsu, M. Kondo, Y. Ohta, in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), postdeadline paper 2.

Lee, W. E.

N. A. Sanford, W. E. Lee, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 578, 7 (1985).

Lunt, S. R.

S. R. Lunt, G. E. Peterson, R. J. Holmes, Y. S. Kim, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 578, 22 (1985).

Milton, A. F.

Ohta, Y.

K. Komatsu, M. Kondo, Y. Ohta, in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), postdeadline paper 2.

Peterson, G. E.

S. R. Lunt, G. E. Peterson, R. J. Holmes, Y. S. Kim, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 578, 22 (1985).

Robinson, W. C.

N. A. Sanford, W. C. Robinson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3 (13), P114 (1986).

N. A. Sanford, W. C. Robinson, Opt. Lett. 10, 190 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanford, N. A.

N. A. Sanford, W. C. Robinson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3 (13), P114 (1986).

N. A. Sanford, W. E. Lee, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 578, 7 (1985).

N. A. Sanford, W. C. Robinson, Opt. Lett. 10, 190 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seaton, C. T.

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, J. Appl. Phys. 58, R57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sheem, S. K.

Stegeman, G. I.

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, J. Appl. Phys. 58, R57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Steinberg, R. A.

Taniuchi, T.

T. Taniuchi, K. Yamamoto, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), paper WR3.

Torge, R.

Ulrich, R.

Yamamoto, K.

T. Taniuchi, K. Yamamoto, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), paper WR3.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975).

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. I. Stegeman, C. T. Seaton, J. Appl. Phys. 58, R57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

N. A. Sanford, W. C. Robinson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3 (13), P114 (1986).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

S. R. Lunt, G. E. Peterson, R. J. Holmes, Y. S. Kim, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 578, 22 (1985).

N. A. Sanford, W. E. Lee, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 578, 7 (1985).

Other (3)

T. Taniuchi, K. Yamamoto, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), paper WR3.

K. Komatsu, M. Kondo, Y. Ohta, in Digest of the Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1986), postdeadline paper 2.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1975).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic apparatus for observing Čerenkov second-harmonic radiation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of the Čerenkov second harmonics driven by the TE00, TE01, and TE02 fundamental modes at 1.06 μm. Correspondence of Čerenkov harmonic output to m lines for proton-exchanged channel waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photograph of Čerenkov harmonic output at 0.532 μm as well as lossy TE00 mode output at 1.06 μm. Simultaneous display is obtained by using a vidicon.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparative Effective Indices of Guided Modes for the Cladded and Uncladded Proton-Exchanged Waveguide as Well as for the Ti-Diffused Waveguide

Equations (3)

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n eff = n ( 2 ω ) cos ( θ ) .
P y = d 22 E x 2 ,
P z = d 31 E x 2 + d 33 E z 2 .

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